The Etymology Game! (please read first post)

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Postby Wasara » Mon Nov 22, 2004 5:38 am

circumscribe


1. (v) restrict or confine, "I circumscribe you to two visits to the pub a day"

2. (v) draw a line around; "He circumscribed a circle around the points"

3. (v) to draw a geometric figure around another figure so that the two are in contact but do not intersect
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Tue Nov 23, 2004 8:34 am

down·size ( P ) Pronunciation Key (dounsz)
v. down·sized, down·siz·ing, down·siz·es
v. tr.
To reduce in number or size: a corporation that downsized its personnel in response to a poor economy.
To dismiss or lay off from work: workers who were downsized during the recession.
To make in a smaller size: cars that were downsized during an era of high gasoline prices.

v. intr.
To become smaller in size by reductions in personnel: Corporations continued to downsize after the economy recovered.
Our Living Language Nothing fails so miserably as a failed euphemismthough there have been plenty of successes. The English language, especially business jargon, is littered with words that now seem ordinary but were once regarded as euphemisms. Consider the terms senior for old person, custodian for janitor, and rest room for toilet (itself a euphemism). These words arise from a natural tendency to ease the pain or embarrassment associated with things such as death or bodily functions, or from a conscious desire to recast something unpleasant in a more dignified light. Downsize is a recent example of a euphemism that found broad acceptance in the language and is not particularly thought of as a deceptive attempt to smooth over the pain of large-scale firings. But the search for less harmful terms goes on and on. The attempt to find even more positive-sounding ways to say “downsize” has led business executives and people working in human resources and public relations (both euphemisms themselves) to float a number of alternatives. Companies were being “reengineered” and even “right-sized” laid-off workers had to be “separated” or “unassigned” for being “nonessential” their jobs were said to be “no longer going forward.” Most of these terms were met with scorn, being regarded as cynical attempts to sugarcoat an inherently distressing phenomenon, and as failed euphemisms they accomplished the exact opposite of what they were designed to. Why one euphemism should be accepted while another is not remains something of a mystery, but the selection of such terms indicates one way in which social attitudes have a powerful effect on language change.
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Postby Wasara » Tue Nov 23, 2004 8:41 am

derogate


1. (v) belittle; "Don`t derogate his influence"
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Sat Nov 27, 2004 9:00 am

Main Entry: vituperate
Definition: to use abusive language
Etymology: Latin vitium `fault, blemish' + perare `to prepare'
Usage: intransitive
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Postby Wasara » Sat Nov 27, 2004 9:29 am

revile


1. (v) sread negative information about;"The Nazi propaganda reviled the Jews"
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Mon Nov 29, 2004 12:09 pm

im·pugn ( P ) Pronunciation Key (m-pyn)
tr.v. im·pugned, im·pugn·ing, im·pugns
To attack as false or questionable; challenge in argument: impugn a political opponent's record.



[Middle English impugnen, from Old French impugner, from Latin impugnre : in-, against; see in-2 + pugnre, to fight; see peuk- in Indo-European Roots.]
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Postby Wasara » Tue Nov 30, 2004 5:38 am

belie


1. (v) represent falsely; "This statement belies my intentions"

2. (v) be in contradiction with
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Tue Nov 30, 2004 2:41 pm

gain·say ( P ) Pronunciation Key (gn-s, gns)
tr.v. gain·said, (-sd, -sd) gain·say·ing, gain·says (-sz, -sz)
To declare false; deny. See Synonyms at deny.
To oppose, especially by contradiction.

[Middle English gainsayen : gain-, against (from Old English gegn-) + sayen, to say (from Old English secgan. See say).]
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Postby Idhren » Tue Nov 30, 2004 7:17 pm

Repudiate

Pronunciation: ri-'pyü-dE-"At
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): -at·ed; -at·ing
Etymology: Latin repudiatus, past participle of repudiare, from repudium rejection of a prospective spouse, divorce, probably from re- + pudEre to shame
1 : to divorce or separate formally from (a woman)
2 : to refuse to have anything to do with : DISOWN
3 a : to refuse to accept; especially : to reject as unauthorized or as having no binding force b : to reject as untrue or unjust <repudiate a charge>
4 : to refuse to acknowledge or pay
synonym see DECLINE
- re·pu·di·a·tor /-"A-t&r/ noun
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Postby Wasara » Wed Dec 01, 2004 6:21 am

forswear


1. (v) formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief,usually under pressure ; "He forswore his earlier statement about his religion"; "She forswore her beliefs"
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Fri Dec 03, 2004 7:03 am

spurn ( P ) Pronunciation Key (spûrn)
v. spurned, spurn·ing, spurns
v. tr.
To reject disdainfully or contemptuously; scorn. See Synonyms at refuse1.
To kick at or tread on disdainfully.

v. intr.
To reject something contemptuously.

n.
A contemptuous rejection.
Archaic. A kick.



[Middle English spurnen, from Old English spurnan. See sper- in Indo-European Roots.]
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Postby Idhren » Fri Dec 03, 2004 9:16 am

Jettison

Main Entry: 1jet·ti·son
Pronunciation: 'je-t&-s&n, -z&n
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English jetteson, from Anglo-French getteson, from Old French getaison action of throwing, from Latin jactation-, jactatio, from jactare -- more at JET
: a voluntary sacrifice of cargo to lighten a ship's load in time of distress
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Postby ShelG » Fri Dec 03, 2004 2:09 pm

Slough ~ slough

v. To discard as undesirable or unfavorable; get rid of: slough off former associates.

n. The dead outer skin shed by a reptile or amphibian.
Medicine.
A layer or mass of dead tissue separated from surrounding living tissue, as in a wound, sore, or inflammation.
An outer layer or covering that is shed.

v. sloughed, slough·ing, sloughs
v. To be cast off or shed; come off: The snake's skin sloughs off.
To shed a slough.
Medicine. To separate from surrounding living tissue. Used of dead tissue.


[Middle English slughe.]
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Postby Wasara » Sat Dec 04, 2004 4:04 am

exuviate


1. (v) cast off hair,skin,horn or feathers;of animals
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Postby ShelG » Sun Dec 05, 2004 10:24 am

Excoriate ~ ex·co·ri·ate

tr.v. ex·co·ri·at·ed, ex·co·ri·at·ing, ex·co·ri·ates
To tear or wear off the skin of; abrade.
See Synonyms at chafe.
To censure strongly; denounce: an editorial that excoriated the administration for its inaction.


[Middle English excoriaten, from Latin excorire, excorit- : ex-, ex- + corium, skin; see sker-1 in Indo-European Roots.]
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Postby Wasara » Tue Dec 07, 2004 5:04 am

abrade


1. (v) strike against an object,as of one's foot or toe

2. (v) scour a surface

3. (v) wear away
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Fri Dec 10, 2004 12:41 pm

gall2 ( P ) Pronunciation Key (gôl)
n.
A skin sore caused by friction and abrasion: a saddle gall.

Exasperation; vexation.
The cause of such vexation.

v. galled, gall·ing, galls
v. tr.
To make (the skin) sore by abrasion; chafe.
To damage or break the surface of by or as if by friction; abrade: the bark of saplings galled by improper staking. See Synonyms at chafe.
To irk or exasperate; vex: It galled me to have to wait outside.

v. intr.
To become irritated, chafed, or sore.



[Middle English galle, from Old English gealla, possibly from Latin galla, nutgall.]
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Postby Wasara » Sat Dec 11, 2004 3:42 am

irk


1. (v) irritate or vex; "It irks me that we lost his suit"
Last edited by Wasara on Thu Dec 16, 2004 8:03 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Wed Dec 15, 2004 12:26 pm

nudge2 or nudzh or noodge ( P ) Pronunciation Key (nj) Slang
n.
One who persistently pesters, annoys, or complains.

v. nudged, or nudzhed or noodged nudg·ing, or nudzh·ing or noodg·ing nudg·es or nudzh·es or noodg·es
v. tr.
To annoy persistently; pester.

v. intr.
To complain or carp persistently.



[From Yiddish nudyen, to pester, bore, from Polish nudzi.]
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Postby Wasara » Thu Dec 16, 2004 8:13 am

prod


1. (n) a pointed instrument used to prod into motion

2. (n) a verbalization that encourages you to attempt to something; "the ceaseless prodding got on his nerves"

3. (v) poke or thrust abruptly; "he jabbed his finger into her ribs"

4. (v) urge on; cause to act

5. (v) to push against gently
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Tue Dec 21, 2004 1:56 pm

nudge2 or nudzh or noodge ( P ) Pronunciation Key (nj) Slang
n.
One who persistently pesters, annoys, or complains.

v. nudged, or nudzhed or noodged nudg·ing, or nudzh·ing or noodg·ing nudg·es or nudzh·es or noodg·es
v. tr.
To annoy persistently; pester.

v. intr.
To complain or carp persistently.


[From Yiddish nudyen, to pester, bore, from Polish nudzi.]



nudge1 ( P ) Pronunciation Key (nj)
tr.v. nudged, nudg·ing, nudg·es
To push against gently, especially in order to gain attention or give a signal.
To come close to; near: “The temperature was nudging 105 degrees in the shade” (Scouting).

n.
A gentle push

[Probably of Scandinavian origin.]

nudger n

nudzh ( P ) Pronunciation Key (nj)
n. & v. Slang
Variant of nudge2.



nudge

n : a slight push or shake [syn: jog] v 1: to push against gently; "She nudged my elbow when she saw her friend enter the restaurant" [syn: poke at, prod] 2: push into action by pestering or annoying gently
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Postby Wasara » Wed Dec 22, 2004 5:00 am

poke at


1. (v) to push against gently
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Wed Dec 22, 2004 9:29 am

prod ( P ) Pronunciation Key (prd)
tr.v. prod·ded, prod·ding, prods
To jab or poke, as with a pointed object.
To goad to action; incite.

n.
A pointed object used to prod: a cattle prod.
An incitement; a stimulus.

[Origin unknown.]

prodder n.
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Postby Wasara » Mon Dec 27, 2004 10:48 am

...heh...Orange,there is bit repetition!


halloo


1. (v) a shout to attract attention; "I have great halloo but no one heard me"

2. (v) shout "halloo"

3. (v) urge on with shouts,of dogs in a hunt
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Postby Evenstar_Elfstone » Mon Dec 27, 2004 4:49 pm

Cool game!

Main Entry: hail
Function: noun
Date: 1500
1 : an exclamation of greeting or acclamation
2 : a calling to attract attention
3 : hearing distance <stayed within hail>

ME haile, earlier hailen, derived of hail health < Scand; cf. Icel heill; c. OE hæl. See WASSAIL
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Postby Wasara » Tue Dec 28, 2004 10:29 am

Good to see you here,Even!


hailstone


1. (n) a small pellet of ice that falls during a hailstorm
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Postby Orangeblossom_Bumbleroot » Tue Dec 28, 2004 12:27 pm

oops, sorry Wasara. Guess I need to do a better job of paying attention.

sleet ( P ) Pronunciation Key (slt)
n.
Precipitation consisting of generally transparent frozen or partially frozen raindrops.
A mixture of rain and snow or hail.
A thin icy coating that forms when rain or sleet freezes, as on trees or streets.

intr.v. sleet·ed, sleet·ing, sleets
To shower sleet.


[Middle English slete, from Old English *slte.]

sleety adj.
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Postby Evenstar_Elfstone » Tue Dec 28, 2004 2:02 pm

Main Entry: rain
Date: before 12th century
intransitive senses
1 : to send down rain
2 : to fall as water in drops from the clouds
3 : to fall like rain
transitive senses
1 : to pour down
2 : to bestow abundantly
- rain cats and dogs: to rain heavily

ME rein, OE regn; c. D, G regen, OIcel regn
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Postby Wasara » Thu Dec 30, 2004 4:15 am

pelting


1. (v) anything happening rapidly or in quick succesive; "a rain of bullets"; "a pelting of insults"
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Postby Gilaglar » Thu Dec 30, 2004 7:41 pm

bombard

Verb

To attack somebody persistently and vigorously. (Either physically or with questions.)

From the noun, a medieval cannon. From Middle English "bombarde". Possibly from Latin "bombus".
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