The Annotated LOTR: The Prologue

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The Annotated LOTR: The Prologue

Postby roaccarcsson » Fri Mar 12, 2004 6:03 pm

They do not and did not understand or like machines more complicated than a forge-bellows

Clearly there were hobbit blacksmiths with the skills to work iron into horseshoes, agricultural implements, nails, and hundreds of other useful farm and household articles - though we do not meet any. (In Bk. I, ch. 2, Gandalf says that there is no smith's fire in the Shire that could melt the Ring. In the drafts, he adds "old Adam Hornblower the smith down the road could not melt it in his furnace".) The drafts also contain this passage:
Even in Hobbiton, one of the most important villages, there were houses. These were specially favoured by the farmers, millers, blacksmiths, carpenters, and people of that sort.


The technology involved in blacksmithing, built up by trial and error over hundreds of generations, is kept alive today by craftworkers and hobbyists, and is discussed in many websites, of which the following is an example.

http://www.lydeangeles.com/waylandsforge.html

In order to make a fire hot enough to raise iron to the point where it can be worked, it is necessary to pump air into the furnace (“forced draft”). A bellows was the traditional way of doing this; it is essentially a bag, originally made from animal skins, that can be rhythmically inflated and compressed. (The word is Old English belgas, the plural of belg “bag.”) A Shire blacksmith would have had an apprentice or helper to pump the bellows while the smith worked the iron. Modern blacksmiths mostly do not have access to cheap labor, so they use electrical blowers to create a forced draft.

Tolkien had this to say about the use of metals in the Shire:
The Shire-hobbits have no very great need of metals, but the Dwarfs are agents; and in the east of the Mountains of Lune are some of their mines (as shown in the earlier legends): no doubt the reason, or one of them, for their often crossing the Shire.

Letter 154. Tolkien thus did not envision (assuming he knew enough about ironworking to have thought about it) that the hobbits mined iron ore and smelted it; rather, their smiths must have purchased wrought iron from the Dwarves in bars or “pigs,” and heated it and worked it to produce the items needed. (Wrought iron is produced by heating a mass of iron ore in a “bloomery,” then hammering it to drive out impurities. The Dwarves may be assumed to have had the technology to produce the higher heat needed to melt and cast iron; but cast iron is brittle and cannot be worked, so it would have been of no use to the hobbit smiths. If cast iron pans were used in the Shire, they would have come from the Dwarves ready-made.)

A wood fire is not hot enough to be useful to a blacksmith. Smiths of Tolkien’s day, like their modern descendants, mostly used coal to fire their forges. If coal was mined in the Shire, there is no mention of it. While coal has been used as fuel where it was found for thousands of years, it was too heavy to ship economically overland before the coming of the railways. (Coal from the north-east of England heated London from the twelfth century on, causing the famous “London fogs” of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; but that was possible because large deposits were located near Newcastle and other ports in the Tyne estuary in Durham and Northumberland, so that it could go south by ship. For centuries, an enormous volume of shipping was devoted to this trade.

http://www.thenortheast.fsnet.co.uk/CoalMiningandRailways.htm)

It can be assumed, therefore, that Shire blacksmiths heated their forges with charcoal. Charcoal is wood that has been burned in an atmosphere almost devoid of oxygen, which drives off water and volatile compounds and leaves behind almost pure carbon. Charcoal-burning was a skilled, laborious, and dangerous craft.

http://www.workingwoodlands.info/charcoalmbriefhistory.htm

The foregoing site says that industrial use of charcoal in the Middle Ages caused widespread deforestation in parts of England - hardly something Tolkien would have approved of. The Shire’s needs for charcoal, however, could likely have been met using wood from “coppices” - tracts of woodland periodically cut back to ground level to encourage new growth. There are several references in LotR to coppices in the Shire.

a water mill,

The use of flowing water to turn a wheel and provide mechanical power is documented as far back as Roman times. The history and the engineering principles involved are described in this website (among many others):

http://itech.dickinson.edu/fsweb/natemill.html

The early stages of the Industrial Revolution, before coal-fired steam engines took over the leading role, relied on water power to run a wide variety of industrial devices (including forge bellows and looms). The most familiar application of water power, however, and the one which Tolkien certainly had in mind, was the “gristmill” which ground grain into flour. As described in the Foreword, Tolkien grew up on intimate terms with one of these, Sarehole Mill.

or a hand loom.

A loom is a device used in the process of weaving - the making of cloth by running a thread in one direction (the weft) back and forth through an array of threads running in a perpendicular direction (the warp). This website summarizes briefly the evolution of the loom:

http://www.history.uk.com/clothing/index.php?archive=5

Edmund Cartwright, an Anglican clergyman, is credited with the invention of the first successful power loom in the late 18th century. The process of spinning fiber into thread on a power-driven machine had been perfected decades earlier, so that thread produced by the “spinning jenny” and its progeny was then distributed to craftsmen to be woven into cloth by hand. When the power loom was perfected, the resulting unemployment led to widespread violence and unrest, usually known as “the Luddite movement” after one of its (pseudonymous) leaders, Ned Ludd:

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRluddites.htm

Neither the blacksmith’s forge, nor the hand loom, nor the water mill, as Tolkien would have thought of them, was a “primitive” device. Moreover, they contain in embryo much of the course of subsequent technology. It is safe to say that if hobbits had the aptitude to build, operate, and maintain these machines, they also had the capacity to “improve” on them (conceding Tolkien the quotation marks). That they did not must be attributed to cultural conservatism rather than innate ability. (In looking at the history of the world, it is apparent that such conservatism is the norm, and it is our present openness to technological change that is the exception. Speculation about the reasons for the exception is way beyond the scope of this project.)

They dressed in bright colours, being notably fond of yellow and green

The yellow and green worn by the hobbits could not have been all that bright by modern standards, or by Tolkien’s. Except among hobbyists, the “natural” or “vegetable” dyes that would have been available in the Shire were completely displaced in the late 19th century by synthetic dyes (originally called “coal-tar dyes” because made from coal distillation products). Synthetic dyes are brighter, more stable (“colorfast”), easier to use, and cheaper than the traditional dyes extracted from various plants. They would plainly not have been known in a culture at the Shire’s stage of technological development.

Green was a particularly difficult color to obtain with vegetable dyes; yellow was somewhat easier. This website has a picture of skeins of wool dyed with various vegetable colors:

http://cavemanchemistry.com/oldcave/projects/dye/

they seldom wore shoes, since their feet had tough leathery soles and were clad in a thick curling hair, much like the hair of their heads, which was commonly brown.

In a letter written to his American publishers, Tolkien said that Bilbo in fact wore boots for most of the story:
There is in the text no mention of his acquiring of boots. There should be! It has dropped out somehow or other in the various revisions - the bootings occurred at Rivendell; and he was again bootless after leaving Rivendell on the way home. But since leathery soles, and well-brushed furry feet, are a feature of essential hobbitness, he ought really to appear unbooted, except in special illustrations of episodes.


The rendering of this passage in the original Swedish translation by Ake Ohlmarks produced an outburst of indignation from Tolkien:
In translating vol. i p. 12, 'they seldom wore shoes, since their feet had tough leathery soles and were clad in a thick curling hair, much like the hair of their heads,' he read the text as 'their feet had thick feathery soles and they were clad in a thick curling hair . . .' and so produces in his Introduction a picture of hobbits whose outer garment was of matted hair, while under their feet they had solid feather-cushion treads!

Letter 228.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Fri Mar 12, 2004 6:20 pm

Bandobras Took (Bullroarer), the son of Isengrim the Second, was four foot five and able to ride a horse

According to the Took family tree printed in Appendix C, Bandobras was born in 1104 and died in 1206. He was the great-great-uncle of Gerontius, the Old Took, the common ancestor of most of the "aristocratic" hobbits mentioned in LotR; see the notes to Bk I, ch. 2 for details. He had "many descendants, including the North-tooks of Long Cleeve" - presumably including Diamond, the eventual wife of Peregrin Took.

In the "Guide to Names," Tolkien says that "I believed when I wrote it that bullroarer was a word used by anthropologists for instruments that made a roaring sound, used by uncivilised people; but I cannot find it in any dictionaries."

The word in this sense is in the online edition of the American Heritage Dictionary:

http://www.yourdictionary.com/ahd/b/b0544800.html

A Finnish poster on Tolkienonline.com once reported that the Finnish translation preserves this meaning.


Those days, the Third Age of Middle-earth, are now long past, and the shape of all lands has been changed; but the regions in which Hobbits then lived were doubtless the same as those in which they still linger: the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea

The name "Middle-earth" is not Tolkien's invention, but an archaic English word meaning "the world inhabited by humans." (Compare Old Norse Midgarðr.) Tolkien made this clear repeatedly - for example, in the "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings":
Middle-earth. Not a special land, or world, or 'planet', as is too often supposed, though it is made plain in the prologue, text, and appendices that the story takes place on this earth and under skies in general the same as now visible. The sense is 'the inhabited lands of (Elves and) Men', envisaged as lying between the Western Sea and that of the Far East (only known in the West by rumour). Middle-earth is a modern alteration of medieval middel-erde from Old English middan-geard . .


From Letter 151:

Middle-earth is just archaic English for oikumene, the inhabited world of men. It lay then as it does. In fact just as it does, round and inescapable . . .

And from Letter 165:
'Middle-earth', by the way, is not a name of a never-never land without relation to the world we live in (like the Mercury of Eddison). It is just a use of Middle English middel-erde (or erthe), altered from Old English Middangeard: the name for the inhabited lands of Men 'between the seas' . . .

From Letter 211:
Middle-earth is (by the way & if such a note is necessary) not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration (N[ew] E[nglish] Dictionary] 'a perversion') of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and (in the northern-imagination) between ice of the North and the fire of the South. O.English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd.


Tolkien said in Letter 211 that he imagined the events in LotR as taking place about 6000 years ago, or about 4000 B.C. He acknowledged that this scheme was not particularly credible:
All I can say is that, if it were "history," it would be difficult to fit the lands and events (or "cultures") into such evidence as we possess, archaeological or geological, concerning the nearer or remoter part of what is now called Europe; though the Shire, for instance, is expressly stated to have been in this region. I could have fitted things in with greater verisimilitude, if the story had not become too far developed, before the question ever occurred to me.


Letters at p. 283 & note.

As for the Hobbits of the Shire .

The country where Hobbits live is not named in The Hobbit. According to Appendix F.II, "On Translation," the actual name of the Shire in the Westron was Sûza.

In the "Guide to Names, Tolkien wrote under "shire":

An organised region with a 'county town' (in the case of the hobbits' Shire this was Michel Delving). Since this word is current in modern English and therefore is in the tale in the Common Speech, translate it by sense.

Shire, Old English scir, seems very early to have replaced the ancient Germanic word for a 'district', found in its oldest form in Gothic gawi, surviving now in Dutch gouw, German Gau. In English, owing to its reduction to ge (pronounced ye), it survived only in a few old place names, the best known of which is Surrey (from Suðer ge) 'southern district'. This word would seem the nearest equivalent in antiquity and general sense to the Shire of the story. The Dutch version uses Gouw; Gau seems to me suitable in German, unless its recent use in regional reorganisation under Hitler has spoilt this very old word. In Scandinavian languages (in which a related word does not exist) some other (preferably old) word for 'district' or province' should be used. The Swedish version uses Fylki, apparently borrowing the Old Norse (especially Norwegian) fylki 'district, province'. Actually the Old Norse and modern Icelandic sýsla (Swedish syssla, Danish syssel, now obsolete in the sense amt, but occurring in place names) was in mind, when I said that the real untranslated name of the Shire was Súza (III 412); hence it was also said (I 14) that it was so named as 'a district of well ordered business'.



The entry for "shire" in the Oxford English Dictionary is (in part): "in Old English times, an administrative district, consisting of a number of smaller units ("hundreds" or "wapentakes"), united for purposes of local government, and ruled jointly by an ealdorman and a sheriff, who presided over the shiremoot . . ." The Normans preserved these units intact, substituting the name counté, from Lat. comitatus, modern "county." "Shire" and "county" are thus synonymous, and "-shire" is retained as an element of the names of many counties in Great Britain today.

"[The Shire] is in fact more or less a Warwickshire village of about the period of the Diamond Jubilee"

Letter 178, Letters, p. 230 (1st US Ed. 1981). Though Tolkien also wrote:
There is no special reference to England in the "Shire" - except of course that as an Englishman brought up in an "almost rural" village of Warwickshire on the edge of the prosperous bourgeoisie of Birmingham (about the time of the Diamond Jubilee) I take my models like anyone else - from such "life" as I know.


Letter 181, ibid., p. 235.

It is plain indeed that in spite of later estrangement Hobbits are relatives of ours: far nearer to us than Elves, or even than Dwareves. Of old they spoke the languages of Men, after their own fashion, and liked and disliked much the same things as Men did. But what exactly our relationship is can no longer be discovered.

From Letter 131:
The Hobbits are, of course, really meant to be a branch of the specifically human race (not Elves or Dwarves) - hence the two kinds can dwell together (as at Bree), and are called just the Big Folk and Little Folk. They are entirely without non-human powers, but are represented as being more in touch with 'nature' (the soil and other living things, plants and animals), and abnormally, for humans, free from ambition or greed of wealth. They are made small (little more than half human stature, but dwindling as the years pass) partly to exhibit the pettiness of man, plain unimaginative parochial man - though not with either the smallness or the savageness of Swift, and mostly to show up, in creatures of very small physical power, the amazing and unexpected heroism of ordinary men 'at a pinch.'


Letters, p. 158, footnote (1st US ed.).

The Beginning of Hobbits lies far back in the Elder Days that are now lost and forgotten. Only the Elves still preserve any records of that vanished time, and their traditions are concerned almost entirely with their own history, in which Men appear seldom and Hobbits are not mentioned at all.

Letter 131 again (what would we do without it?):

In the middle of this Age the Hobbits appear. Their origin is unknown (even to themselves) for they escapted the notice of the great, or the civilised peoples with records, and kept none themselves, save vague oral traditions, until they had migrated from the borders of Mirkwood, fleeing from the Shadow, and wandered westward, coming into contact with the last remnants of the Kingdom of Arnor.


Letters, p. 138.

Before the crossing of the mountains the Hobbits had already become divided into three somewhat different breeds: Harfoots, Stoors, and Fallohides.

The names of the three "breeds" of Hobbits are Old English (or rather, they are plausible though unattested descendants of Old English roots. "Harfoot" means "Hairfoot"; "Fallohide" means "Paleskin"; and "Stoor" means "Large." (Stor, or a variation, remains the ordinary word for "large" in the Scandinavian languages.)

Thomas Shippey points out that the threefold division of the Shire Hobbits parallels the tradition that the ancestors of the English who came to England from the Continent were made up of three distinct peoples: Angles (who settled the North and the Midlands), Saxons (who settled the Southwest) and the Jutes (who settled in Kent). The Road to Middle-Earth, pp. 77-78 (Ist US ed., Houghton-Mifflin, Boston 1983)

The Harfoots . . . . moved westward early

Appendix B dates the appearance of the Harfoots in Eriador to about T.A. 1050.

one of the first to become important . . . was at Bree and in the Chetwood that lay round about, some forty miles east of the Shire.

Appendix B dates the founding of Bree to about T.A. 1300.

And in those days also they forgot whatever languages they had used before, and spoke ever after the Common Speech, the Westron as it was named, that was current through all the lands of the kings from Arnor to Gondor, and about all the coasts of the Sea from Belfalas to Lune.

Tolkien later wrote that the Common Speech (Sôval Phârë in (genuine) Westron), was more properly called Adûni 'Westron' (or in Sindarin Annúnaid). It was also known as Falathren (Sindarin for "Shore-language" ). The Peoples of Middle-earth Pg 316.

the Fallohide brothers, Marcho and Blanco

"Marcho" is derived from OE mearh, "horse"; "Blanco" was an OE word meaning "white horse." Again, Tolkien seems consciously to be imitating the traditional account of the English incursion into Britain, led by the brothers Hengest "Stallion" and Horsa "Horse." Shippey, loc. cit.

While there was still a King they were in name his subjects

The "King" was the ruler of Arthedain, the remnant of the Numenorean kingdom of Arnor. Its history is summarized in Appendix A, part I(iii).

But in that war the North Kingdom ended; and then the Hobbits took the land for their own, and they chose from their own chiefs a Thain to hold the authority of the King that was gone.

Arthedain was overthrown in TA 1974 (SR 374), and its last king, Arvedui, was drowned in a shipwreck the following year. See id.

Thegn was an Old English title for one who was given land by the King in exchange for military service. The Oxford English Dictionary says that "thain" would be the expected modern form of the word. "Thane," familiar from Shakespeare's Macbeth, is a Scottish spelling; the title persisted in Scotland after it had died out in England.

A note in Appendix A says that the first Thain of the Shire was Bucca of the Marish, an ancestral Brandybuck. Note that formally, the Steward of Gondor and the Thain of the Shire were equivalent positions; thus Pippin and Faramir were of the same nominal rank!

In the original draft of this section of the Prologue, the King's deputy was called the "Shire-king," or "Shirking" (the latter being derived from the former by the same process that turned "Shire-reeve" into "Shirriff")
But that title was no longer in use in Bilbo's time: it had been killed by the endless and inevitable jokes that had been made about it, in defiance of its obvious etymology.


HoME v. XII, pp. 5-6. Native speakers of other languages may not know that the verb "shirk" means to neglect a duty, or to avoid work. This is thus a joke of the same order as "Bounders." Tolkien evidently decided that one was enough.

Three Elf-towers of immemorial age were still to be seen on the Tower Hills beyond the western marches.

The White Towers were over three thousand years old, having been built by the Elves of Lindon before the end of the Second Age:
It is said that the towers of Emyn Beraid were not built indeed by the Exiles of Númenor, but were raised by Gil-galad for Elendil, his friend; and the Seeing Stone of Emyn Beraid was set in Elostirion, the tallest of the towers. Thither Elendil would repair, and thence he would gaze out over the sundering seas, when the yearning of exile was upon him [...].

'Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age', The Silmarillion.


The tallest was furthest away, standing alone upon a green hill.

Only one hill is referred to here, but the map shows "The Tower Hills," and these are referred to in Bk I, ch. 3 and in the Appendix. Their name in Sindarin was Emyn Beraid, which is a translation of "Tower Hills" (or vice versa).

The Hobbits of the Westfarthing said that one could see the Sea from the top of that tower; but no Hobbit had ever been known to climb it.

In a footnote in Appendix A, part I(iii), it is disclosed that the single tower contained a palantir:

This was guarded by the Elves, and though we never knew it, it remained there, until Cirdan put it aboard Elrond's ship when he left (I, 54, 119). But we are told that it was unlike the others and not in accord with them; it looked only to the Sea. Elendil put it there so that he could look back with "straight sight" and see Eressea in the vanished West; but the bent seas below covered Numenor forever.


The tower looking over the sea is a recurring image in Tolkien's writing. For example, Tolkien's lecture on Beowulf criticism "The Monsters and the Critics", delivered in November 1936, contains an allegory in which a man building a tower represents the poet writing Beowulf. The man's friends and descendants were scornful of the tower, and never bothered to climb it. "But from the top of that tower the man had been able to look out upon the sea."

It is generally accepted that this tower is the one that appears in Frodo's dream at the end of Bk I, ch. 5. The second page reference in the footnote quoted in the forgoing note is to this passage.

The land was rich and kindly, and though it had long been deserted when they entered it, it had before been well tilled, and there the king had once had many farms, cornlands, vineyards, and woods.

The Shire is placed in a water and mountain situation and a distance from the sea and a latitude that would give it a natural fertility, quite apart from the stated fact that it was a well-tended region when they took it over...


This annotation has now outgrown the single-post limit. It is continued in the next.]
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Postby roaccarcsson » Fri Mar 12, 2004 6:21 pm

Forty leagues it stretched from the Far Downs to the Brandywine Bridge.

'League' is a translation of the Númenórean Lár.

Measures of distance are converted as nearly as possible into modern terms. "League" is used because it was the longest measurement of distance: in Númenórean reckoning (which was decimal) five thousand rangar (full paces) made a lár, which was very nearly three of our miles. Lár meant "pause," because except in forced marches a brief halt was usually made after this distance had been covered. The Númenórean ranga was slightly longer than our yard, approximately thirty-eight inches, owing to their great stature. Therefore five thousand rangar would be almost exactly the equivalent of 5280 yards, our "league:" 5277 yards, two feet and four inches, supposing the equivalence to be exact.


'NÚMENÓREAN LINEAR MEASURES', Unfinished Tales

They forgot or ignored what little they had ever known of the Guardians, and of the labours of those that made possible the long peace of the Shire.

It is made clear later that the second part of this sentence refers to the Rangers. It is less obvious that “The Guardians” is a reference to the Valar:

As a reward for their sufferings in the cause against Morgoth, the Valar, the Guardians of the World, granted to the Edain a land to dwell in, removed from the dangers of Middle-earth. Most of them, therefore, set sail over Sea, and guided by the Star of Eärendil came to the great Isle of Elenna, westernmost of all Mortal lands. There they founded the realm of Númenor.


Appendix A.I.i, "Kings of Númenor"

Then darkness came upon the minds of the Numenoreans, and they held the Guardians in hatred, and openly denied the One who is above all; and they turned to the worship of the Dark, and of Morgoth the Lord of the Darkness. They made a great temple in the land and there did evil; for they tormented the remnant of the faithful, and there slew them or burned them.

HoME v. 12, ”The Tale of Years of the Second Age.”

The last battle, before this story opens, and indeed the only one that had ever been fought within the borders of the Shire, was beyond living memory: the Battle of Greenfields, S.R. 1147, in which Bandobras Took routed an invasion of Orcs.

The battle of Greenfields appears in “The Hobbit”:
If you have ever seen a dragon in a pinch, you will realize that this was only poetical exaggeration applied to any hobbit, even to Old Took's great-grand-uncle Bullroarer, who was so huge (for a hobbit) that he could ride a horse. He charged the ranks of the goblins of Mount Gram in the Battle of the Green Fields, and knocked their king Golfimbul's head clean off with a wooden club. It sailed a hundred yards through the air and went down a rabbit-hole, and in this way the battle was won and the game of Golf invented at the same moment.



these were used mostly as trophies, handing above hearths or on walls, or gathered into the museum at Michel Delving. The Mathom-house it was called; for anything the Hobbits had no immediate use for, but were unwilling to thow away, they called a mathom

In Appendix F.II, "On Translation," Tolkien explains that "mathom" is meant to recall ancient English máthm, and so to represent the relationship of the actual Hobbit kast to [Rohirric] kastu."

It is characteristic of Tolkien, with his sensitivity to word origins, that he felt the need to invent a word of English origin to replace the Greek "Museum." The Old English word appears several times in Beowulf, alone and in compounds, and is usually translated "treasure" or "heirloom." The most common spelling is máþþm; the runic character þ, called "thorn," is used in Old English to represent the sound now written with the digraph "th." Tolkien presumably uses the alternate spelling because "máththm" looks odd.

But suitable sites for these large and ramifying tunnels (or smials as they called them) were not everywhere to be found

"Smial," like "mathom," was invented by Tolkien as a plausible descendant of an Old English word: "Similarly smial (or smile) is a likely form for a descendant of smy[l, and represents well the relationship of Hobbit trân to R. trahan." Appendix F.II, "On Translation." The "y" in smygel represents the "front round" vowel, not found in Modern English, written "u" in French and "ü" in German.

Michel Delving on the White Downs

"Michel" is another of Tolkien's "hypothetical" descendants of of an Old English word, in this case micel meaning "large," and is cited as an example in Appendix F. "Mickle" with the same meaning is in common use in Scotland, though it is likely that it descends immediately from Old Norse mikill (Scots English is full of ON loan words). "Delving" of course means "excavation," from the verb "delve," so that "Michel Delving" and "Great Smials" mean roughly the same thing.

The White Downs are evidently meant to recall that quintessentially English topographical feature, the Chalk Downs of southern England.

The habit of building farm-houses and barns was said to have begun among the inhabitants of the Marish down by the Brandywine.

"Marish" is simply an old form of "marsh." The 1913 edition of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary has:
Marish \Mar'ish\, n. [Cf. F. marais, LL. marascus. See Marsh.] Low, wet ground; a marsh; a fen; a bog; a moor. [Archaic]


In the "Guide to Translation," Tolkien instructs translators to render the name into the new language, "using if possible a word or form that is understood but local or out of date."

The inhabitants of a wet and low-lying district would have no choice but to build above ground, as the high water table would flood any excavation.

Their houses were usually long, low, and comfortable. The oldest kind were, indeed, no more than built imitations of smials, thatched with dry grass or straw

A thatched roof is one covered with a thick layer of bundles of vegetation to keep out rain. Because such materials are widely available and cheap, thatched roofs of one kind or another are or were common in in all parts of the world. In England, where historic preservation laws have kept the thatcher's craft very much alive, wheat straw and salt-water marsh reeds are the materials used; given the inland location of the Shire, it can be assumed that Farmer Maggot's buildings were thatched with wheat straw.

http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/thatchrf/thatchrf.htm

In the edition of LotR illustrated by Alan Lee, the picture of Tom Bombadil's house shows a thatched roof.

or roofed with turves

"Turves" as a plural of "turf" was labeled as obsolete as early as the 1913 edition of Webster's dictionary. A "turf" is a patch of growing grass, cut loose and stripped away from the underlying ground with its matted roots. (This is a British usage; in the US, "turf" is ordinarily applied to grass in situ, while the word "sod" is used for grass cut away from the earth. "Turf" is an Old English word, while "sod" is thought to be from the Dutch.)

As a roofing material, turf is cheap and easy to work with, though not particularly durable. In areas where wood is hard to come by, it has been used not only for roofs but for walls (in which it provides excellent insulating properties). Here is an excellent site documenting the construction of turf houses in Iceland:

http://www.hurstwic.org/history/articles/daily_living/text/Turf_Houses.htm

And here is one about "sod houses" on the Great Plains of the US:

http://www.autry-museum.org/explore/exhibits/sod/daily.html

and having walls somewhat bulged.

At first blush, it sounds as if hobbit houses must be structurally unsound. A normal (straight) wall that bulges outwards is in danger of collapsing.
Based on the description, we may think that hobbit houses were meant to be above ground, free-standing tunnels, such as this one:
http://users.chariot.net.au/~rbuckley/bg/tunnel.jpg
However, such a structure would be quite difficult for novice builders to construct out of stone or brick!
Rather, Tolkien intends for these new hobbit houses to retain the arcitectural characteristics of their traditional underground smials using concave walls. These walls are traditionally built of stone in Wales, and are quite sturdy. Please see the link below for more information and a picture:
http://handbooks.btcv.org.uk/handbooks/ ... ction/1650


they liked to have books filled with things that they already knew, set out fair and square with no contradictions.

As with much else about the Shire, this statement (insofar as it implies widespread ownership of books, which in turn implies a printing/publishing industry) is an anachronism. The Shire is, as Tolkien says, depicted as having a level of material progress approximating that of a rural English village in about 1900 (Letter 131). This is fundamentally inconsistent with the pre-industrial civilization that prevails elsewhere in Middle-Earth. Other instances are pointed out in the annotations to Bk. I, ch. 1. The existence of book publishing in the Shire (which is also suggested by the comment in Bk. I, ch. 1 about Hugo Bracegirdle's habit of borrowing books and not returning them) is also inconsistent with what we are told about the transmission of the history of the War of the Ring in manuscript form (see below). If there had been publishers and bookshops in the Shire, it is hard to imagine that the "Red Book" would not have been a best seller. If on the other hand books had to be copied out by hand, as in medieval Europe, they would have been scarce and valuable. No ordinary hobbit would have owned even one.

The Shire was divided into four quarters, the Farthings already referred to, North, South, East, and West

"Farthing" is simply "fourthing," the Old English equivalent of the Latin-derived "quarter." A coin called a farthing, equivalent to a quarter of a penny, was formerly in use in Britain.

A "real-world" analogy to the geographical use of the word is found in the former division of Yorkshire into three "Ridings." This is a worn-down form of "thriding," meaning "third-part." Modern English "third" was originally "thrid"; the vowel and the "r" changed places by a process known to linguists as "metathesis," just as Mod.E. "bird" was once "brid."

early all Tooks still lived in the Tookland

A recorded exception were the North-tooks of Long Cleeve in the North Farthing, identified in the Took family tree as being among the descendants of Bandobras the Bullroarer. It is generally assumed that Pippin's wife Diamond was a member of this branch of the family.

Outside the Farthings were the East and West Marches

The term "March" is derived from the Anglo-Saxon mearc, which means "boundary." Its best known contemporary use is the ‘Welsh Marches’ - the borderlands between England and Wales.

There remained, of course, the ancient tradition concerning the high king at Fornost, or Norbury as they called it, away north of the Shire. But there had been no king for nearly a thousand years, and even the ruins of Kings' Norbury were covered with grass.

As for "Fornost", a glance at the book would show that it is comparable rather to the Kings' mounds at Old Uppsala than to the city of Leeds!


Letters: Letter 229

This reference is to three great grave mounts at Uppsala in Sweden, said to date from the Iron Age and to be the burial places of legendary kings. Here are two sites:

http://www.terragalleria.com/europe/swe ... d6136.html

http://www.raa.se/olduppsala/history.asp[/quote]


But there had been no king for nearly a thousand years

If this is taken to refer to TA 3001, when LotR opens, then it is an understatement. It had then been 1027 years since the fall Arvedui, the last king of Arthedain, in 1974.

the office of the Thain had passed to them (from the Oldbucks

The first Thain [in SR 379 (TA 1979)], was Bucca of the Marish, the ancestor of the Oldbucks (later, the Brandybucks). The first 12 Thains were his decendants. The office passed to the Tooks (Isumbras I) in TA 2340, when the Oldbucks moved to Buckland. See Appendix A, iii, 'The North Kingdom and the Dunedain' and Appendix B, 'The Tale of Years.'
The name "Bucca" means "goat," and is the same element that appears in "Brandybuck," those as "buck" it means simply "animal.

Brandybuck - A rare English name which I have come across. Its origin in English is not concerned; in The Lord of the Rings it is obviously meant to contain elements of the Brandywine River and the family name Oldbuck (see these entries). The latter contains the word 'buck' (animal): either Old English bucc 'male deer' (fallow or roe), or bucca 'he goat'.
Buckland is also meant to contain the same animal name (German Bock), though Buckland, an English place-name, is frequently in fact derived from 'book land', land originally held by a written charter.


Oldbuck - The buck is derived from a personal name Buck, in archaic form Bucca (III 368, year 1979). The first name Gorhendad (I 108) should be left unchanged. It is a Welsh word meaning 'great-grandfather'; the reason for giving the folk of Buckland Welsh names or ones of similar style is given in III 413 4


"A Guide to the Names" A Tolkien Compass

http://home.zhwin.ch/~bernaste/rings/guide_to_names.html

The Thain was the Master of the Shire-Moot

The Moots were the folk assemblies of Anglo-Saxon England, first mentioned in the Kentish laws of the Eighth Century. The president of the moot was known as the Shire-man or doomsman (compare Mandos' title).

In Anglo-Saxon England shires were divided into hundreds, and further subdivided into tithings which were notiionally groups of ten families.The hundreds met monthly to deal with the ordinary judicial business of the community.

It is likely that the more important disputes would dealt with at shire-moots, which were less frequent and more solemn. These met twice yearly and would be attended by the earl and bishop. This assembly combined judicial, legislative and administrative functions. (see JH Baker QC, An Introduction to English Legal History 4th Ed pp 4-8)

It can be seen then that the Thain was important person in the local assembly, but that Tolkien envisaged a system of communal decision making for the Shire.

the Free Fair on the White Downs

Amidst other criticisms of Dr. Åke Ohlmarks' translation of this passage (in the first translation of The Lord of the Rings into Swedish), Tolkien comments in 'Guide to Names in The Lord of the Rings':

It was not a night festival or 'wake', but a day-celebration marked by a 'Free Fair' (Dutch version Vrije Markt), so called because anyone who wished could set up a booth without charge.


at the Lithe, that is at Midsummer

The Shire calendar is set out in Appendix D. According to this, the hobbits used a twelve-month solar calendar similar to our own, except that each month had thirty days. The Lithe or Lithedays, also called the Summerdays, was a three-day festival held at the summer solstice, matched at the other end of the year by the two-day Yule festival at the winter solstice; these days were not part of any month. The calendar was kept in synchronicity with the solar round by adding an extra day ("Overlithe") every fourth year, corresponding to February 29 in the Gregorian calendar.

Tolkien took the name "Lithe," as well as the names of the Shire-months, from the pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon calendar, as recorded in the manuscript treatise De tempora ratione, "Of the reckoning of time," by the scholar and monk Bede ("The Venerable Bede")

There is no evidence, however, that the Angles and Saxons celebrated a midsummer feast called "Lithe." The word appears in the names of two simmer months, Ærra Liða and Æfterra Liða, corresponding roughly to our June and July. Tolkien chose to interpret those names as meaning "the month before Lithe" and "the month after Lithe." Bede, however, says that "Litha means 'gentle' or 'navigable', because in both these months the calm breezes are gentle and they were wont to sail upon the smooth sea." The author of the cited website observes that "Since the adjective liðe does appear in other Anglo-Saxon contexts meaning 'calm' or 'gentle', along with the verb liðan meaning 'to sail', and a host of other 'lið' words with nautical connotations, Bede's explanation seems wholly plausible." So it appears that Ærra Liða and Æfterra Liða simply meant "First Travel-month" and "Second Travel-month."

Moreover, the Anglo-Saxon calendar, like the present-day Muslim and Jewish calendars, was based on lunar months ("lunations") of 28.5 days. To prevent the months from migrating around the solar year, an extra month had to be added at intervals; according to Bede, this was a third Lithe-month.

Many contemporary "Neopagans" celebrate a midsummer feast called Litha. It appears to be conceded that the name is a borrowing from LotR - a development that probably would not have pleased Tolkien.

At the time when this story begins the Bounders, as they were called, had been greatly increased.

JRRT is using 'bounder' in its archaic and little used sense of 'one who patrol the boundaries.'
Bounders. Evidently intended to mean 'persons watching the bounds (that is, boundaries)'. This word exists in English, and is not marked as obsolete in dictionaries, though I have seldom heard it used; probably because the late nineteenth-century slang 'bounder'— an offensively pushing and in-bred man—was for a time in very general use, and soon became a term of contempt equivalent to 'cad'. It is a long time since I heard it, and I think it is now forgotten by younger people. The Dutch translation uses Poenen 'cads', probably because a well-known dictionary only gives patser 'bounder, cad' as the meaning of bounder (labelled as slang). In the text the latter sense is meant to be recalled by English readers, but the primary functional sense to be clearly understood. (This slender jest is not, of course, worth imitating, even if possible).


'Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings.'

Of the Finding of the Ring

As is told in The Hobbit, there came one day to Bilbo's door the great Wizard, Gandalf the Grey, and thirteen dwarves with him: none other, indeed, than Thorin Oakenshield, descendant of kings, and his twelve companions in exile. With them he set out, to his own lasting astonishment, on a morning of April, it being then the year 1341 Shire-reckoning, on a quest of great treasure, the dwarf-hoards of the Kings under the Mountain, beneath Erebor in Dale, far off in the East


Following the publication of The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien devoted considerable effort to reconciling the offhand manner in which Bilbo's journey is undertaken with the "darker" tone of the larger work. A brief account of how Gandalf came to underwrite Thorin's expedition is found in Appendix A.III, "Durin's Folk." A fuller version appears in Unfinished Tales under the title "The Quest of Erebor" (Part Three, Section III) The preliminary drafts are given in HOME XII, "The Peoples of Middle-earth," with the longest extant version ("text B" ) appearing as Appendix A of The Annotated Hobbit (edited by Douglas A. Anderson)).

The party was assailed by Orcs in a high pass of the Misty Mountains as they went towards Wilderland

This pass is elsewhere (e.g. in "Many Meetings") referred to as the High Pass. In Unfinished Tales its Sindarin name is given: Cirith Forn en Andrath, the high-climbing pass of the North.

The Authorities, it is true, differ whether this last question was a mere 'question' and not a 'riddle' according to the strict rules of the Game; but all agree that, after accepting it and trying to guess the answer, Gollum was bound by his promise.

JRRT confirmed in a communication in 1965 (referenced in Robert Foster's The Complete Guide to Middle-earth) to Dick Plotz (first 'Thain' of the Tolkien Society of America) that the Authorities who ruled on the legality of Bilbo's last 'riddle' were in fact the Valar

This tallies with other uses by JRRT of Authorities (with a capital-A) such as in Letter 153 (1954):

As for 'whose authority decides these things?' The immediate 'authorities' are the Valar (the Powers or Authorities): the 'gods'


or in the Glossary JRRT included with the Athrabeth Finrod ah Andreth

Valar [extract] (The name) means 'those with power, the Powers'. But it should more strictly be translated 'the Authorities'. The 'power' of the Valar resided in the 'authority' they had from Eru. They had sufficient 'power' for their functions - that is, vast or godlike power over, and knowledge of, the physical structure of the Universe, and understanding of the designs of Eru. But they were forbidden to use force upon the Children of Eru. The stem melk- (seen in Melkor) on the other hand means 'power' as force and strength.


Morgoth's Ring (Pg 350). It is interesting that the Valar considered this question but difficult to determine how either the compilers of the Red Book (or JRRT as 'Editor and Redactor' of the manuscripts that have come down to us) became aware of this information.

A NOTE ON THE SHIRE RECORDS

CJRT notes

The Note on the Shire Records entered in the Second Edition. In one of his copies of the First Edition my father noted: 'Here should be inserted Note on the Shire Records'; but he wrote against this later: 'I have decided against this. It belongs to Preface to The Silmarillion.'


'The Prologue', The Peoples of Middle-earth.

JRRT obviously changed his mind back again.

The paperback 'Unwin Books' Edition of 1974 has NOTE ON SHIRE RECORDS, omitting the 'THE'

Any work that was written before the introduction of printing has necessarily come down to us through a chain of handwritten copies. The oldest copy that has survived to the present may be have been written out centuries after the work itself was composed. Given the errors that inevitably creep into and are perpetuated by the copying process, a large part of the study of any such work involves minute physical scrutiny of the surviving manuscripts, in an attempt to reconstruct the original text.

This discipline is known as "paleography"; it would have been a significant part of Tolkien's professional training. It was thus natural for him, having formulated the concept that LotR was a translation of the writings of Bilbo and Frodo, to construct an account of the manuscripts through which they were transmitted.

Many "classical" texts exist in multiple copies; there are over 600 surviving manuscripts of the Iliad, and thousands that contain all or parts of the Bible. For the Northern European literature which was Tolkien's field of expertise, however, we owe our knowledge of many works to the chance preservation of a single manuscript. Ninety percent of all surviving Old English poetry is contained in just four unique manuscripts (one of which is in the cathedral library of a small city in Italy).

This account of the end of the Third Age is drawn mainly from the Red Book of Westmarch

Given the immense labor required to copy a book out by hand, any manuscript volume was a rare and valuable object. It was natural for a particularly prized example to come to be known by a name, often based on a physical characteristic. A close parallel to "the Red Book of Westmarch" is found in "the Red Book of Hergest" (Llyfr Coch Hergest), an uniquely important compilation of Welsh legends assembled in the late Middle Ages and now in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. As with "Findegil," the Llyfr Coch identifies the scribe who assembled it: Hywel Fychan, son of Hywel Goch of Fuellt. It is highly likely that Tolkien had this specific model in mind.

An image of the complete Llyfr Coch is available here:

http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=jesus&manuscript=ms111

in the Shire he was chiefly remembered for his Herblore of the Shire, and for his Reckoning of Years in which he discussed the relation of the calendars of the Shire and Bree to those of Rivendell, Gondor, and Rohan.

Tolkien is careful to maintain the premise that everything in LotR is derived from ancient documents. The Herblore is obviously meant to account for part 2 of this Prologue, and the Reckoning of Years for the information about the calendars of Middle-Earth in Appendix D.

The title Reckoning of Years echoes the Venerable Bede's De temporum ratione. This work, written about 725 A.D., brought about the general adoption of the current Western system of dating from the (supposed) year of the birth of Christ; it is also our only source for the names of the months of the Anglo-Saxon calendar, adapted by Tolkien for the Shire calendar (see note on "Lithe," above). De temporum ratione means literally "concerning of-times ordering "; "Reckoning of Years" would be an acceptable though free translation.

None of them was written by Peregrin

It is consistent with Tolkien's depiction of their characters that Merry wrote scholarly works and Pippin did not. See Bk. III ch. 3, where Merry says, "I don't suppose you have much notion where we are; but I spent my time at Rivendell rather better."

But the chief importance of Findegil’s copy is that it alone contains the whole of Bilbo’s “Translations from the Elvish.” These three volumes were found to be a work of great skill and learning in which, between 1403 and 1418, he had used all the sources available to him in Rivendell, both living and written. But since they were little used by Frodo, being almost entirely concerned with the Elder Days, no more is said of them here.

Book VI, ch. 6 records Bilbo’s giving these books to Frodo: “three books of lore that he had made at various times, written in his spidery hand, and labelled on their red backs: Translations from the Elvish, by B.B..” Plainly they are to be understood as the “source” for The Silmarillion; see the note cited above for Tolkien’s intention to have this section serve as a Preface to that work.

A Part of the Shire [Map]

This map, like the others which appear in LotR, was drawn by Tolkien's son Christopher from the author's working original. Letter 144, Letters at p. 177. Christopher's initials "C.T." can be seen in the lower left-hand corner of the title box.

As Tolkien observes in this letter, and also in Letter 137 to Rayner Unwin (at p. 168), his method of working was to construct a map (more precisely, to extend or redraw the existing map as the story advanced), and to make the narrative fit the map instead of the other way around. "The other way around lands one in confusions and impossibilities . . ." (Letter 144)

Besides the map as published, there exist four versions of this map drawn by the author, and another done by Christopher. HoME v. VI, "The Return of the Shadow," at pp. 106-08.
Last edited by roaccarcsson on Wed Apr 27, 2005 3:50 pm, edited 24 times in total.
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Fri Mar 12, 2004 7:13 pm

<strong>It is plain indeed that in spite of later estrangement Hobbits are relatives of ours: far nearer to us than Elves, or even than Dwareves. Of old they spoke the languages of Men, after their own fashion, and liked and disliked much the same things as Men did. But what exactly our relationship is can no longer be discovered.</strong><BR><BR>From Letter 131:<BR><BR><strong>The Hobbits are, of course, really meant to be a branch of the specifically <em>human</em> race (not Elves or Dwarves) - hence the two kinds can dwell together (as at Bree), and are called just the Big Folk and Little Folk. They are entirely without non-human powers, but are represented as being more in touch with 'nature' (the soil and other living things, plants and animals), and abnormally, for humans, free from ambition or greed of wealth. They are made <em>small</em> (little more than half human stature, but dwindling as the years pass) partly to exhibit the pettiness of man, plain unimaginative parochial man - though not with either the smallness or the savageness of Swift, and mostly to show up, in creatures of very small physical power, the amazing and unexpected heroism of ordinary men 'at a pinch'</strong><BR><BR>------------------------------------------------------------<BR><BR><strong>The Beginning of Hobbits lies far back in the Elder Days that are now lost and forgotten. Only the Elves still preserve any records of that vanished time, and their traditions are concerned almost entirely with their own history, in which Men appear seldom and Hobbits are not mentioned at all.</strong><BR><BR>Letter 131 again (what would we do without it?):<BR><BR><strong>In the middle of this Age the Hobbits appear. Their origin is unknown (even to themselves) for they escapted the notice of the great, or the civilised peoples with records, and kept none themselves, save vague oral traditions, until they had migrated from the borders of Mirkwood, fleeing from the Shadow, and wandered westward, coming into contact with the last remnants of the Kingdom of Arnor.</strong>
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Postby truehobbit » Sat Mar 13, 2004 4:23 pm

I don't really remember what we agreed on about maps - are they necessary, do all editions have maps?<BR><BR>If we link to maps, this<BR><em>but the regions in which Hobbits then lived...</em><BR>might be the place to have the first one<BR><BR>So for a start, here's Christopher Tolkien's map of ME<BR><a href='http://www.douglas.eckhart.btinternet.co.uk/maps-middle-earth-01.jpg' target=_blank>http://www.douglas.eckhart.btinternet.co.uk/maps-middle-earth-01.jpg</a><BR>and of the Shire<BR><a href='http://www.douglas.eckhart.btinternet.co.uk/maps-the-shire-01.jpg' target=_blank>http://www.douglas.eckhart.btinternet.co.uk/maps-the-shire-01.jpg</a><BR><BR>On second thought, you need maps all through the books, so maybe they should come at some more general point or not at all.<BR><BR>I'm also not so sure whether this counts as a "difficult word", but just in case:<BR><BR><em>Forty leagues it stretched from the Far Downs to the Brandywine Bridge</em><BR><BR>league - in England = 3 English statute miles (= 4.8 kms)
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Postby Silverfoot » Sat Mar 13, 2004 7:01 pm

*deleted*<BR><BR>For the reason why, see Rómestámo's post below. He's certainly correct. (As usual. <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-wink.gif"border=0>)
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Postby Alberich » Sun Mar 14, 2004 8:44 am

<strong>The last battle .. fought within the boundaries of the Shire .. the battle of Greenfields, SR 1147</strong><BR>One of the ways in which the Shire seems to represent Tolkien's ideal of rural England is its long term peace and stability. The battle of Greenfields took place 272 years before the year of the culminating events of the 'Lord of the Rings', S.R. 1419. The last battle on English soil, Sedgmoor, took place in 1685, 269 years before the publication of 'The Fellowship of the Ring' (the last battle in Britain was at Culloden in Scotland in 1746).<BR><BR><strong>Outside the Farthings were the East and West Marches</strong><BR>The term "March" is derived from the Anglo-Saxon "mearc," which means "boundary." Its best known contemporary use is the ‘Welsh Marches’ - the borderlands between England and Wales.
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Sun Mar 14, 2004 2:37 pm

<strong>[The Shire] is in fact more or less a Warwickshire village of about the period of the Diamond Jubilee....</strong><BR><BR>Letter 178<BR><BR><strong>There is no special reference to England in the "Shire" - except of course that as an Englishman brought up in an "almost rural" villae of Warwickshire on the edge of the prosperous bourgeoisie of Birmingham (about the time of the Diamond Jubilee) I take my models like anyone else - from such "life" as I know.</strong><BR><BR>Letter 181
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Sun Mar 14, 2004 3:11 pm

<strong>And in those days also they forgot whatever languages they had used before, and spoke ever after the Common Speech, the Westron as it was named, that was current through all the lands of the kings from Arnor to Gondor, and about all the coasts of the Sea from Belfalas to Lune.</strong><BR><BR>The Common Speech (<em>Sôval Phârë</em> in (genuine) Westron), was more properly called <em>Adûni</em> 'Westron' (or in Sindarin <em>Annúnaid</em>). It was also known as <em>Falathren</em> (Sindarin for "Shore-language" ). <em>The Peoples of Middle-earth</em> Pg 316.<pre> -------------------------</pre><strong>Silverfoot</strong> :<em>It may also be useful to point out that Bilbo and Frodo and Sam were Harfoots, Merry and Pippin had some Fallohide blood</em><BR><BR>Unfortunately, while Samwise Gamgee might possibly be labled a Harfoot, there is no strong evidence for this. [In fact, JRRT suggests that the Gamgees also had a Fallohidish strain in his notes on Sam's sister's name:<UL><strong>Marigold</strong>. Translate this flower-name (see III 413). The name is used because it is suitable as a name in English and because, containing 'gold' and referring to a golden flower, <strong>it suggests that there was a 'Fallohide' strain</strong> (see I 12) <strong>in Sam's family</strong> - which, increased by the favour of Galadriel, became notable in his children: especially <em>Elanor</em>, but also <em>Goldilocks</em> (a name sometimes given to flowers of the buttercup kind) who married the heir of Peregrin Took. [...]<BR><BR>'Guide to the Names in <em>The Lord of the Rings</em>.]</UL>Frodo and Bilbo also carry a <em>strong Fallohidish strain</em> as can be seen by their degree of consanguinity with the Tooks and Brandybucks and in Gandalf's description of Frodo given (by Butterbur) in the Inn at Bree. It may be that by Frodo's time intermarriage between the three hobbit 'tribes' meant that while 'tendencies' or 'strains' in families could be identified, pure-bred stoors, harfoots and fallohides could no longer be found within The Shire. Thus I would not include an annotation concerning the heroes of the tale at this point. A comment concerning Gollum might be better placed in <em>The Shadow of the Past</em><pre> -------------------------</pre><strong>Forty leagues it stretched from the Far Downs to the Brandywine Bridge.</strong><BR><BR>'League' is a translation of the Númenórean <em>Lár</em>.<UL>Measures of distance are converted as nearly as possible into modern terms. "League" is used because it was the longest measurement of distance: in Númenórean reckoning (which was decimal) five thousand <em>rangar</em> (full paces) made a <em>lár</em>, which was very nearly three of our miles. <em>Lár</em> meant "pause," because except in forced marches a brief halt was usually made after this distance had been covered. The Númenórean <em>ranga</em> was slightly longer than our yard, approximately thirty-eight inches, owing to their great stature. Therefore five thousand <em>rangar</em> would be almost exactly the equivalent of 5280 yards, our "league:" 5277 yards, two feet and four inches, supposing the equivalence to be exact. <BR><BR>'NÚMENÓREAN LINEAR MEASURES', <em>Unfinished Tales</em></UL>
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Postby MithLuin » Sun Mar 14, 2004 3:46 pm

<strong>He was surpassed in all Hobbit records only by two famous characters of old; but that curious matter is dealt with in this book.</strong><BR><BR>Merry and Pippin, on account of the ent-draughts. See the coversation with Gimli at the end of 'The Field of Cormallen,' and Pippin's comment to Bilbo in 'Many Partings:' <em>But if you want to beat the Old Took, I don't see why we shouldn't try and beat the Bullroarer.</em><BR><BR><em><strong>six meals a day (when they could get them)</strong><BR><BR>Apparently, not very definate what these are called. <BR>breakfast, second breakfast, elevenses, nuncheon, tea, supper????????????<BR>See <strong>wilko</strong>'s post below. I still think this should be annotated, but not the way I attempted to <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-wink.gif"border=0>. </em><BR><BR><strong>the Guardians</strong><BR><BR>the Dunedain, descendants of the King of Arnor; see Butterbur's discussion in 'Homeward Bound' that begins, "the Rangers have all gone away."<BR><BR><strong>they had never fought among themselves</strong><BR><BR>In 'The Scouring of the Shire,' Frodo tells us, <em>"no hobbit has ever killed another on purpose in the Shire."</em><BR><BR><strong>said that one could see the Sea from the top of that Tower</strong><BR><BR>This tower contained a palantir set in it by Elendil, the High-King of Gondor and Arnor, at the end of the Second Age. Looking in the palantir, one could see Tol Eressea, the Lonely Isle. For more on the <em>palantiri</em>, see <em>Unfinished Tales</em><BR><BR><strong>Though one wizard I knew took up the art long ago,</strong><BR><BR>A reference to Gandalf, though it is clear that the wizard Saruman also smoked pipe-weed. For a discussion of the reaction of Saruman to Gandalf's smoking habit, see <em>Unfinished Tales</em>, Part Three, sec. IV.iii, "Concerning Gandalf, Saruman, and the Shire." <BR><BR><strong>at the Lithe, that is at Midsummer.</strong><BR><BR>See the first page of Appendix D for the Shire Calendar.<BR>The last day of the sixth month was 1 Lithe, followed by Midyear's Day (which was not part of any week or month). In Leap Years, Overlithe would follow Midyear's Day, also outside of weeks and months. The first day of the seventh month was called 2 Lithe. <BR><BR><strong>Now it is a curious fact that this is not the story as Bilbo first told it to his companions.</strong><BR><BR>See the annotation on <strong>he looked sidelong at Gloin</strong> in 'The Council of Elrond.'<BR><BR><strong>No one else in the Shire knew of its existence, or so he believed. Only to Frodo did he show the account of his Journey that he was writing.</strong><BR><BR>Merry Brandybuck also was aware of the Ring, and had seen Bilbo's book on one occasion. See 'A Conspiracy Unmasked.'<BR><BR><strong>his coat of marvellous mail, ... he lent to a museum</strong><BR><BR>It says 'lent,' because he eventually asked for it back, and took it with him on his second departure from the Shire. See 'Many Meetings'<BR><BR><strong>The largest of these collections were probably at Undertowers, at Great Smials, and at Brandy Hall.</strong><BR><BR>Or, are due to the efforts of Sam, Pippin and Merry. <BR><BR>Sam's oldest daughter Elanor married Fastred of Greenholm. They moved to the Tower Hills and founded Undertowers. It is said that Sam left the original Red Book with Elanor when he departed Middle Earth. See the note on S.R. 1482 in Appendix B<BR><BR>Great Smials is the ancestral home of the Tooks in Tuckborough, and Brandy Hall is the ancestral home of the Brandybucks in Buckland. Brandy Hall is described at the beginning of 'A Conspiracy Unmasked.' Pippin briefly describes a room of Great Smials at the beginning of 'Treebeard.'<BR><BR><strong>The original Red Book has not been preserved</strong><BR><BR>See note above.<BR><BR>And, I have found a wonderful quote for this project!<BR><BR><em>In Minas Tirith it received much <strong>annotation</strong>, and many corrections, especially of names, words and quotations in the Elvish languages.</em>
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Postby wilko185 » Sun Mar 14, 2004 5:11 pm

<em><strong>six meals a day (when they could get them)</strong><BR><BR>breakfast, second breakfast, elevenses, nuncheon, tea, supper</em><BR><BR>I'm not sure if we can arrive at a definitive list here. There was some discussion of this in the thread "How many meals (or snacks) a day DO Hobbits eat??", <a href='http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/messageview.cfm?start=0&catid=4&threadid=59223' target=_blank>http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/messageview.cfm?start=0&catid=4&threadid=59223</a>, where for example <strong>Eluchil</strong> posted:<OL> I would propose something like this:<BR><BR><BR>06:00 Breakfast<BR>09:00 Second Breakfast<BR>12:00 Lunch<BR>15:00 Tea<BR>18:00 Dinner<BR>21:00 Supper<BR><BR>Other arangements are certainly possible ...</OL>
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Postby MithLuin » Sun Mar 14, 2004 6:11 pm

<BR>I definately should have put "???" after that statement. Thanks, <strong>wilko</strong>!
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Postby wilko185 » Sun Mar 14, 2004 6:27 pm

<strong>MithLuin</strong>, ok <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif"border=0>.<BR><BR>There are many names in the Prologue, which I suppose are best annotated when encountered in the main text? <BR><BR>Re maps, I was thinking of including some of Barbara Strachey's detailed ones showing the routes travelled, in my presentation of this material. BTW, I will post and say when I finally get round to updating that.<BR><BR><BR><strong>they prospered and multiplied after the Dark Plague (S.R. 37) until the disaster of the Long Winter and the famine that followed it. Many thousands then perished, but the Days of Dearth (1158-60) were at the time of this tale long past</strong><BR><OL>Note: add 1600 to translate Shire Reckoning (S.R.) to years of the Third Age. <BR><strong>1636: The Great Plague devastates Gondor. Death of King Telemnar and his children. The White Tree dies in Minas Anor. The plague spreads north and west, and many parts of Eriador become desolate. Beyond the Baranduin the Periannath survive, but suffer great loss.<BR>[..]<BR><BR>2758-9: The Long Winter follows. Great suffering and loss of life in Eriador and Rohan. Gandalf comes to the aid of the Shire-folk.</strong><BR><BR>(Appendix B)</OL><BR><strong>the wolves that had once come ravening out of the North in bitter white winters were now only a grandfather's tale</strong><BR><OL><strong>2911: The Fell Winter. The Baranduin and other rivers are frozen. White Wolves invade Eriador from the North.</strong><BR>(Appendix B)<BR><BR><strong>The Brandybucks were blowing the Horn-call of Buckland, that had not been sounded for a hundred years, not since the white wolves came in the Fell Winter, when the Brandywine was frozen over.</strong><BR>(Book I, Ch. 11)</OL><BR><strong>The Hobbits of the Westfarthing said that one could see the Sea from the top of that tower; but no Hobbit had ever been known to climb it.</strong><BR><OL>The tower looking over the sea is a recurring image in Tolkien's writing. For example, Tolkien's lecture on Beowulf criticism <em>"The Monsters and the Critics"</em>, delivered in November 1936, contains an allegory in which a man building a tower represents the poet writing Beowulf. The man's friends and descendants were scornful of the tower, and never bothered to climb it. <strong>But from the top of that tower the man had been able to look out upon the sea.</strong></OL><BR><strong>2. Concerning Pipe-weed</strong><BR><OL><strong>Hobbits are represented as using tobacco, and this is made more or less credible by the suggestion that the plant was brought over the Sea by the Men of Westernesse (I 18)</strong><BR>(from the <em>Guide to Names in 'The Lord of the Rings'</em>, entry on <em>Cotton</em>)<BR><BR>[I include this defintive equation of pipeweed and tobacco, as the mention of "a variety of <em>nicotania</em>" in the Prologue has led some to argue that pipeweed might only be related to the tobacco plant.]</OL><BR><strong>The Shire at this time had hardly any 'government'.</strong><BR><OL>This is worthy of some annotation, I think. For now I'll just immodestly link my thread on hobbit politics <a href='http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=53978' target=_blank>http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=53978</a>. I may come back to this point later, if no one else does.</OL>
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Postby Aravar » Mon Mar 15, 2004 3:58 am

<strong>Master of the Shire-Moot.</strong><BR><BR>The Moots were the folk assemblies of Anglo-Saxon England, first mentioned in the Kentish laws of the Eighth Century. The president of the moot was known as the Shire-man or doomsman (compare Mandos' title)<BR> <BR>In Anglo-Saxon England shires were divided into hundreds, and further subdivided into tithings which were notiionally groups of ten families.The hundreds met monthly to deal with the ordinary judicial business of the community.<BR><BR>It is likely that the more important disputes would dealt with at shire-moots, which were less frequent and more solemn. These met twice yearly and would be attended by the earl and bishop. This assembly combined judicial, legislative and administrative functions. (see JH Baker QC, An Introduction to English Legal History 4th Ed pp 4-8)<BR><BR>It can be seen then that the Thain was important person in the local assembly, but that Tolkien envisaged a system of communal decision making for the Shire.
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Postby MithLuin » Mon Mar 15, 2004 4:27 pm

<em>There are many names in the Prologue, which I suppose are best annotated when encountered in the main text? </em><BR><BR>Yes, though we could link from this occurance to the main Annotation.<BR><BR><strong>the office of the Thain had passed to them (from the Oldbucks)</strong><BR><BR>The first Thain [in SR 379 (TA 1979)], was Bucca of the Marish, the ancestor of the Oldbucks (later, the Brandybucks). The first 12 Thains were his decendants. The office passed to the Tooks (Isumbras I) in TA 2340, when the Oldbucks moved to Buckland. <BR>See Appendix A, iii, 'The North Kingdom and the Dunedain' and Appendix B, 'The Tale of Years'<BR><BR>Edit: Added to on March 24, 2004. See later post.
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Postby Nár » Tue Mar 16, 2004 3:38 am

"There are many names in the Prologue, which I suppose are best annotated when encountered in the main text? "<BR><BR>I'll keep my notes concerning Thorin for "Many meetings", then. <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif"border=0>
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Tue Mar 16, 2004 6:53 am

<strong>4. <em>Of the Finding of the Ring</em><BR>As is told in The Hobbit, there came one day to Bilbo's door the great Wizard, Gandalf the Grey, and thirteen dwarves with him: none other, indeed, than Thorin Oakenshield, descendant of kings, and his twelve companions in exile. With them he set out, to his own lasting astonishment, on a morning of April, it being then the year 1341 Shire-reckoning, on a quest of great treasure, the dwarf-hoards of the Kings under the Mountain, beneath Erebor in Dale, far off in the East.</strong><BR><BR>JRRT gave several versions of how this journey came about (as told from the viewpoint of Gandalf and the dwarves) in <em>The Quest of Erebor</em>. This appears in Part Three, Section III of <em>Unfinished Tales</em> (with the preliminary drafts given in HOME XII <em>The Peoples of Middle-earth</em> and the longest extant version ("text B" ) appearing as Appendix A of <em>The Annotated Hobbit</em> (edited by Douglas A. Anderson)).
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Postby scirocco » Tue Mar 16, 2004 6:56 am

I don't think there's anything wrong with annotating names here in the <em>Prologue</em>, which also happen to appear later in the text. IMHO, annotations should go wherever there is the most narrative regarding the name. If the choice isn't obvious then it can go wherever it occurs first. If they "set the scene", so to speak, then here in the Prologue is a good choice.<BR><BR>So, this could go either here or in <em>The Scouring of the Shire</em>.<BR><BR><strong>The <em>Shirriffs</em> was the name that the Hobbits gave to their police, or the nearest equivalent that they possessed...</strong><BR><BR>For readers accustomed to American sheriffs with guns and patrol cars, the connection of the word <em>Shirriffs</em> to the <em>Shire</em> may not be obvious, despite Tolkien's best efforts. From <em>The Guide to the names in The Lord of the Rings</em>...<BR><OL>Shirriff(s). Actually a now obsolete form of English sheriff 'shire-officer', used by me to make the connection with <em>Shire</em> plainer...</OL><BR><a href='http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=sheriff' target=_blank><strong>sheriff</strong></a><BR>Etymology: Middle English <strong>shirreve</strong>, from Old English <em>scIrgerEfa</em>, from <em>scIr</em> <strong>shire</strong> + <em>gerEfa</em> <strong>reeve</strong> : an important official of a shire or county charged primarily with judicial duties (as executing the processes and orders of courts and judges).<BR><BR>---------------------------------------------------------------<BR><BR>This one could either go in here, or perhaps in an annotation about the Downfall of Numenor in Appendix A:<BR><BR><strong>Those days, the Third Age of <em>Middle-earth</em>, are now long past, and the shape of all lands has been changed; but the regions in which Hobbits then lived were doubtless the same as those in which they still linger: the North-West of the Old World, east of the Sea...</strong><BR><BR>From <em>The Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings...</em><BR><OL>Middle-earth. Not a special land, or world, or 'planet', as is too often supposed, though it is made plain in the prologue, text, and appendices that the story takes place on this earth and under skies in general the same as now visible. The sense is 'the inhabited lands of (Elves and) Men', envisaged as lying between the Western Sea and that of the Far East (only known in the West by rumour). Middle-earth is a modern alteration of medieval <em>middel-erde</em> from Old English <em>middan-geard</em>...</OL><BR>From Letter 151:<BR><OL>Middle-earth is just archaic English for <em>oikumene</em>, the inhabited world of men. It lay then as it does. In fact just as it does, round and inescapable...</OL><BR>And from Letter 165:<BR><OL>'Middle-earth', by the way, is not a name of a never-never land without relation to the world we live in (like the Mercury of Eddison). It is just a use of Middle English <em>middel-erde</em> (or <em>erthe</em>), altered from Old English <em>Middangeard</em>: the name for the inhabited lands of Men 'between the seas'...</OL><BR>From Letter 211:<BR><OL>Middle-earth is (by the way & if such a note is necessary) not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration (N[ew] E[nglish] Dictionary] 'a perversion') of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the <em>oikoumene</em>: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and (in the northern-imagination) between ice of the North and the fire of the South. O.English <em>middan-geard</em>, mediaeval E. <em>midden-erd, middle-erd<em>. </OL>
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Postby Silverfoot » Mon Mar 22, 2004 1:27 pm

<strong>Most hobbits regarded even rivers and small boats with deep misgivings, and not many of them could swim.</strong><BR><BR>The Bucklanders were an exception to this rule, as noted in 'A Conspiracy Unmasked': <BR><em>...they were not very different from the other hobbits of the Four Farthings. Except in one point: they were fond of boats, and some of them could swim.</em> <BR>Merry also points this out in 'Farewell to Lórien': <BR><em>'And one Hobbit!' cried Merry. 'Not all of us look on boats as wild horses. My people live by the banks of the Brandywine.'</em>
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Postby MithLuin » Wed Mar 24, 2004 5:03 pm

To add to <strong>Silverfoot</strong>'s:<BR><BR>The Bucklanders' use of boats is introduced by Gaffer Gamgee early in 'A Long-Expected Party': <em>Not that the Brandybucks of Buckland live </em>in<em> the Old Forest; but they're a queer breed, seemingly. They fool about with boats on that big river - and that isn't natural. </em><BR><BR>Frodo's parents, Primula Brandybuck and Drogo Baggins, also went boating.
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Postby MithLuin » Wed Mar 24, 2004 9:38 pm

<BR><em> * Edited annotation * </em><BR><BR><strong>the office of the Thain had passed to them (from the Oldbucks)</strong><BR><BR>The first Thain [in SR 379 (TA 1979)], was Bucca of the Marish, the ancestor of the Oldbucks (later, the Brandybucks). The first 12 Thains were his decendants. The office passed to the Tooks (Isumbras I) in TA 2340, when the Oldbucks moved to Buckland. <BR>See Appendix A, iii, 'The North Kingdom and the Dunedain' and Appendix B, 'The Tale of Years'<BR><BR>Edit:<BR>The name "Bucca" means "goat," and is the same element that appears in "Brandybuck," those as "buck" it means simply "animal." <BR><em>Brandybuck - A rare English name which I have come across. Its origin in English is not concerned; in </em>The Lord of the Rings<em> it is obviously meant to contain elements of the Brandywine River and the family name Oldbuck (see these entries). The latter contains the word 'buck' (animal): either Old English bucc 'male deer' (fallow or roe), or bucca 'he goat'.<BR>Buckland is also meant to contain the same animal name (German Bock), though Buckland, an English place-name, is frequently in fact derived from 'book land', land originally held by a written charter.<BR>Oldbuck - The buck is derived from a personal name Buck, in archaic form Bucca (III 368, year 1979). The first name Gorhendad (I 108) should be left unchanged. It is a Welsh word meaning 'great-grandfather'; the reason for giving the folk of Buckland Welsh names or ones of similar style is given in III 413 4.<BR></em><BR>Source - "A Guide to the Names" <u>A Tolkien Compass</u><BR><a href='http://home.zhwin.ch/~bernaste/rings/guide_to_names.html' target=_blank>http://home.zhwin.ch/~bernaste/rings/guide_to_names.html</a>
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Thu Mar 25, 2004 2:38 pm

<em>Nonetheless, ease and peace had left this people still curiously tough. They were, if it came to it, difficult to daunt or to kill...</em><BR><BR><strong>Ultimately indomitable <em>Gollum</em> was, except by death, as Sauron guessed, both from his halfling nature...</strong><BR><BR>UT: The Hunt for the Ring<BR><BR>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<BR><em>The land was rich and kindly, and though it had long been deserted when they entered it, it had before been well tilled, and there the king had once had many farms, cornlands, vineyards, and woods. </em><BR><BR><strong>The Shire is placed in a water and mountain situation and a distance from the sea and a latitude that would give it a natural fertility, quite apart from the stated fact that it was a well-tended region when they took it over...</strong>]<BR><BR>Letter 154 <BR>
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Postby MithLuin » Fri Mar 26, 2004 3:53 pm

<BR><strong>roaccarcsson</strong> has officially declared that the Prologue begins inside the cover. So, the Title Page and (perhaps) the Forward are up for grabs.<BR><BR><strong>Title Page</strong><BR><BR>The writing on the Title Page is not merely decoration. The words on the top are written in Angerthas. Angerthas, or Cirth, are generally translated as "runes", because of their resemblance to Futhark/Futhork, the runic alphabets of Germanic tribes and the Anglo-Saxons. Daeron, minstrel of Doriath during the First Age, is credited with developing the Cirth, though it was later modified by others. The Cirth were specially designed for use in carving inscriptions. J.R.R. Tolkien explains these systems of writing in Appendix E. <BR>On this website, Dan Smith trascribes the runes from the top of the Title Page.<BR><a href='http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/4948/cirth/ex_lotr.htm' target=_blank>http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/4948/cirth/ex_lotr.htm</a><BR><BR>The message on the bottom of the Title Page is written in Tengwar, the writing of the elves (and other peoples of Middle Earth). These Tengwar were developed by Feanor, a prince of the Noldor who also created the Silmarils and (perhaps) the palantiri. The Tengwar were developed for writing with a brush, and were based on an earlier writing system by Rumil, an elf of the Blessed Realm. See Appendix E for a discussion of Tengwar. The inscription on the bottom of the title page is transcribed by Dan Smith at this website:<BR><a href='http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/4948/tengwar/exlotrt.htm' target=_blank>http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/4948/tengwar/exlotrt.htm</a> <BR><BR>It is important to point out that both of these inscriptions are written in English. Other inscriptions in the story demonstrate how these alphabets could be used to write other languages.<BR>
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Fri Mar 26, 2004 5:05 pm

The annotation for the <em>Foreword</em> has been transferred to the thread dedicated to that 'chapter' :<a href='messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=79751' target=_blank>The Annotated LOTR - Foreword</a>
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Postby roaccarcsson » Thu Apr 01, 2004 5:06 pm

Bumping this up - just to emphasize that work is still taking place (editing the work-posts to add new material doesn't register).
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Thu Apr 01, 2004 8:29 pm

<strong>NOTE ON THE SHIRE RECORDS</strong><BR><BR>CJRT notes <UL>The <em>Note on the Shire Records</em> entered in the Second Edition. In one of his copies of the First Edition my father noted: 'Here should be inserted Note on the Shire Records'; but he wrote against this later: 'I have decided against this. It belongs to Preface to <em>The Silmarillion</em>.'<BR><BR>'The Prologue', <em>The Peoples of Middle-earth</em>.</UL>JRRT obviously changed his mind back again.<pre> -------------------------</pre>The paperback 'Unwin Books' Edition of 1974 has <strong>NOTE ON SHIRE RECORDS</strong>, omitting the 'THE'.<BR>
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Postby roaccarcsson » Tue Apr 06, 2004 7:58 am

Calling your attention to an edit; I have stuck in a note on the White Downs, saying they are evidently meant to recall the Chalk Downs of southern England. These are a matter of hearsay to me. Someone who is actually familiar with them might have something to add. (I have always thought from the reference to Bombadil's path turning into a "little river of milk" that the Barrow-Downs must be chalk also. Assuming I am right there is a note there for the proper chapter. Are the Chalk Downs particularly rich in prehistoric monuments? I know there is at least one White Horse cut into them somewhere.)
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Thu Apr 08, 2004 4:30 am

<strong>At the time when this story begins the Bounders, as they were called, had been greatly increased.</strong><BR><BR>JRRT is using 'bounder' in its archaic and little used sense of 'one who patrol the boundaries'.<UL><strong>Bounders</strong>. Evidently intended to mean 'persons watching the bounds (that is, boundaries)'. This word exists in English, and is not marked as obsolete in dictionaries, though I have seldom heard it used; probably because the late nineteenth-century slang 'bounder'— an offensively pushing and in-bred man—was for a time in very general use, and soon became a term of contempt equivalent to 'cad'. It is a long time since I heard it, and I think it is now forgotten by younger people. [...] In the text the latter sense is meant to be recalled by English readers, but the primary functional sense to be clearly understood. (This slender jest is not, of course, worth imitating, even if possible).<BR><BR>'Guide to the Names in <em>The Lord of the Rings</em>.'</UL>
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Thu Apr 08, 2004 4:49 pm

roac, try this site:<BR><BR><a href='http://www.megalithic.co.uk/search.php?topic=1&county=25' target=_blank>http://www.megalithic.co.uk/search.php?topic=1&county=25</a><BR><BR>There are prehistoric monuments all over the place in the British Isles - not by any means confined to the Chalk Downs.
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Postby Silverfoot » Thu Apr 08, 2004 5:23 pm

If you want a picture of the chalk horse, Roac, I included a link to it in the King of the Golden Hall annotation thread.... I think it got skipped over when the annotations were compiled, but if you scroll through to my post, you'll find it.<BR><BR>Edited: Or I could just save you the trouble.... <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif"border=0> <a href='http://my.richnet.net/~msallen/msallen/lotr/whitehorse.html' target=_blank>http://my.richnet.net/~msallen/msallen/lotr/whitehorse.html</a>
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