The Annotated LOTR: A Long-Expected Party

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The Annotated LOTR: A Long-Expected Party

Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Fri Apr 02, 2004 5:27 pm

A Long-Expected Party

The title of the chapter is a deliberate echo of the first chapter of The Hobbit: "An Unexpected Party."

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When Mr. Bilbo Baggins of Bag End...'

As has been explained in the Prologue, two different dating systems are used in LotR. The Elves and the Men of Numenorean descent dated the beginning of the Third Age from the first overthrow of Sauron; dates in this system are prefaced with "T.A." The Shire-Reckoning ("S.R.") began in T.A. 1601, when the Shire was settled by Hobbits. Bilbo was born in T.A. 2890, S.R. 1290, so it is T.A. 3001, S.R. 1401 when the story begins.

Also...

Baggins. Intended to recall 'bag' - compare Bilbo's conversation with Smaug in The Hobbit - and meant to be associated (by hobbits) with Bag End (that is, the end of a 'bag' or 'pudding bag' = cul-de-sac), the local name for Bilbo's house. (It was the local name for my aunt's farm in Worcestershire, which was at the end of a lane leading to it and no further).


"Guide to Names in 'Lord of the Rings')

[The "Guide to Names in 'Lord of the Rings'" and 'The Appendix on Languages' in Part I of HOME 12, have similar details of the meaning of many hobbit names, and also their original Common Speech forms.]

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there was great talk and excitement in Hobbiton.

The name "Hobbiton" first appears in The Hobbit in the last few pages, in the description of the auction of Bilbo's property: "the effects of the late Bilbo Baggins Esquire, of Bag-End, Underhill, Hobbiton."

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except, of course, the Sackville-Bagginses

Otho Sackville Baggins was the son of Longo Baggins, the younger brother of Bilbo's father Bungo, and Camellia Sackville. He added "Sackville" to his name because the "male line" of Sackvilles had failed -- the head of the Sackville family, presumably Camellia's father, died leaving no descendants bearing the Sackville name. Tolkien wrote that the headship of a family

might pass through a daughter of the deceased to his eldest grandson (irrespective of the daugher's age). . . . In such cases the heir (if he accepted the courtesy title) took the name of his mother's family - though he often retained that of his father's family also (placed second). This was the case with Otho Sackville-Baggins. For the nominal headship of the Sackvilles had come to him through his mother Camellia.


Letter 214, Letters at p. 295 (1st U.S. ed.).

Tolkien is following English practice here. It was not uncommon, when a the holder of an estate had no male descendant, for him to choose a relative through the female line as his heir, conditioned on the recipient changing his name. One of Jane Austen's brothers was adopted in this way by wealthy relatives named Knight.

The double-barrelled Sackville-Baggins name is explained in Letter 214. If the headship passed from a (male) head to his daughter's family:

In such cases the heir (if he accepted the courtesy title) took the name of his mother's family - though he often retained that of his father's family also (placed second).

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...[Bilbo's] younger cousins. .. The eldest of these, and Bilbo's favourite, was young Frodo Baggins.

In the early drafts in HOME, of course, Frodo (then called Bingo) is Bilbo's son.

Frodo
In Letter 168, Tolkien says that "Frodo is a real name from the Germanic tradition. Its Old English form was Fróda. Its obvious connection is with the old word Fród meaning eymologically 'wise by experience,' but it had mythological connexions with legends of the Golden Age in the North. . . ." Letters, 1st U.S. ed. at p. 224.

The Norse equivalent of Fróda is Fróði. (The letter "ð," called "edh," represents the "voiced th" sound spelled "dh" in Tolkien's Elvish orthography. Most writers in English use "th" to transliterate the edh, so that the name is most often written "Frothi." )

The frivolously-named but very respectable "Vikinganswerlady" website says that Fróðiwas "[o]riginally a by-name, 'the wise one' . . . From the OW.Norse adjective fróðr 'wise, learned.'"

http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm#male_f

A "by-name" is a nickname applied to a person to describe a personal characteristic. Anyone who knows anything at all about the Vikings is familiar with this usage, as in "Erik the Red" (Eirikr inn raudi) and his son "Leif the Lucky" (Leifr inn heppni); "Red" and Lucky" are by-names. Both of Iceland's early historians, Sæmundr Sigfússon (1056-1133) and Ari Þorgilsson (Thorgilsson) (1067/8-1148), were given the by-name inn fróði in recognition of their learning.

See http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=531

Tolkien's rendering "wise by experience" is presumably his attempt to combine the meanings "wise" and learned" - both of which can be said to apply to Frodo Baggins.

According to "Vikinganswerlady" loc. cit.) Fróði was a common name in Viking-age Denmark, less so in Sweden, and quite rare in Norway, and hence in Iceland. The site below bears this out; it lists all the masculine personal names found in the Icelandic Landnámabók, the Book of Settlements (lit. "Landtakings" ). Out of 7100 individuals mentioned, the name Fróði appears twice. (Landnámabók was the work of the aforementioned Ari Þorgilsson, Ari inn fróði.)

http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html

In the earliest drafts of LotR, the hero was named "Bingo Bolger-Baggins," who was born a Bolger and took the name "Baggins" on his adoption by Bilbo. HoME VI, pp. 37-38. The name "Frodo" belonged to one of two Took brothers who were Bingo's companions: Frodo and Odo Took. Tolkien had gotten the story all the way to Rivendell in something resembling its final form before he reconsidered this assignment of names. Christopher Tolkien reproduces this note:

Too many hobbits. Also Bingo Bolger-Baggins a bad name. Let Bingo = Frodo, a son of Primula Brandybuck . . . . Also he has as proper name Baggins.

[Frodo struck out] No - I am now too used to Bingo.

Id., p. 221. Bingo remained Bingo through a further revision before becoming Frodo once and for all; Id., p. 309.

It is remarkable, in view of Tolkien's declared hostility to allegorical interpretation, that the hero of LotR is named "Wise" while his companion (see below) is named "Half-wise."

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No one had a more attentive audience than old Ham Gamgee, commonly known as the Gaffer.

(Nearly all of the following annotation is taken from:http://www.tuckborough.net/gamgee.htmlwhich seems to be a quite reliable website.)

Hamfast is from the Old English hámfœst meaning "stay-at-home." (Appendix F, p. 414)

Gamgee is an English surname and also a name for "cotton-wool," named after an English surgeon who invented "Gamgee tissue." Tolkien remembered the name from his childhood near Birmingham and used it to relate the Gamgee family to the Cotton family. (Although he claims there was no such intent, the very pointing out of the possibility of a connection, in the Appendices, forms a connection to the reader.)
As a Hobbit name, Gamgee is derived from Gamwich, a village devoted to rope-making--significant because, as Sam points out in a later chapter, rope-making is 'in the family as you might say.' Ham's brother, father, and grandfather were all nicknamed "Roper." Other forms include Gammidge, Gamwichy, and Gammidgy. ("Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," p. 166; Letters, #72, #144, #184; Appendix C)

Gaffer means "old man."

Gaffer Gamgee was the name given by Tolkien to an old man that he and his boys encountered while on holiday. The man was prone to gossiping and predicting the weather. The name became part of the family lore. (Letters, #257)

Ranugad Galpsi is the original Hobbit name of Hamfast Gamgee. (Appendix F, p. 414)

"Gaffer" is a contraction of "grandfather," as "gammer," the equivalent term for an old woman, is a contraction of "grandmother."

The chief electrician on a movie set is called the "gaffer," apparently because the term came to be used in Britain for the foreman of any work gang - as the captain of a ship or the commander of a military unit is always "the Old Man" regardless of age.

[I always thought the gaffer was the guy who operated the gaff, whatever that was. As the Key Grip was the person who gripped the key. TORC is a very educational place.)

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He held forth at The Ivy Bush, a small inn on the Bywater Road. English pubs are traditionally called after the picture painted on the sign hanging outside their front door, by which people would have identified them when many were illiterate. 'Ivy Bush' is a perfectly likely name. One database of 60,000 British pub names http://www.jetlink.net/~bconroy/ lists five 'Ivy Bushes', though for some reason all are in Wales. There are also plain 'Ivy' or 'Ivy House' names all over England.

A bush is the traditional sign of a drinking-place, dating back to Roman times when grape vines were hung outside to represent the wine being sold. From this tradition an actual bush was apparently hung outside public houses in Britain, and ivy might be a good local approximation of grape vines.

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old Ham Gamgee

The Gaffer was born in 1326, and was thus about 75 at the time of the Party - not particularly old, in terms of the hobbit lifespan.

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he had tended the garden at Bag End for forty years, and had helped old Holman in the same job before that

On the next page, the Gaffer says that Holman was "my dad's cousin." This would be Holman Greenhand, b. 1292, son of Halfred Greenhand. Halfred's sister Rowan was the Gaffer's grandmother, having married Hob Gammidge the Roper. See "The Longfather-tree of Master Samwise" in Appendix C.

"Old Holman" makes a personal appearance in the account of the origins of Thorin's expedition against Smaug, which Tolkien drafted for possible inclusion in Bk. VI, ch. 4:

I actually wrote in full an account of what really happened before Gandalf's visit to Bilbo and the subsequent "Unexpected Party," as seen by Gandalf himself. It was to have come in during a looking-back conversation in Minas Tirith; but it had to go, and is only represented in brief in Appendix A . . .


Unfinished Tales, pp. 12-13 (1st US paperback). In the full version, as published in UT, Gandalf says:

They shook their heads in Hobbiton when I asked after [Bilbo]. "Off again," said one Hobbit. It was Holman, the gardener, I believe. "Off again. He'll go right off one of these days, if he isn't careful. Why, I asked him where he was going, and when he would be back, and I don't know he says; and then he looks at me queerly. It depends if I meet any, Holman he says. It's the Elves' New Year tomorrow! A pity, and him so kind a body. You wouldn't find a better from the Downs to the River."


UT P. 337

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the job was mainly carried on by his youngest son, Sam Gamgee

According to the family tree given in Appendix C, Sam was born in S.R. 1380. Until quite recently, however, Appendix B gave a different birth year: The entry for T.A. 2983 included "Samwise born in the Shire." Several different lines of evidence suggest that the earlier date was correct:

(1) The drafts of the family tree published in HoME give the 1380 date throughout, while the entry for Sam's birth was added to the "Tale of Years" very late.

(2) The family tree gives 1383 as the year of birth of Sam's sister Marigold. Thare is no indication that he was a twin; and while it is possible for non-twin siblings to be born in the same calendar year, this seems unlikely.

(3) In Bk. II, ch. 6, Merry and Pippin are referred to as "the two younger hobbits," which implies that both were younger than Sam. Merry was born in 1382, according to the Brandybuck family tree. (Neither Merry's nor Pippin's birth is recorded in the Tale of Years.)

(4) Most convincingly, Appendix B itself states, under the year S.R. 1469, that Sam was 96 on the expiration of his last term as Mayor, in 1476.

It thus seems clear that the 1383 date was a slip on Tolkien's part. Possibly he looked at Marigold's entry in the family tree by mistake. In the recently-published "50th Anniversary Edition," the Tale of Years shows Sam's birth in 1380.

Thus Sam was no more than 21 at the time the story opens - the equivalent of a young teenager in human terms. In the late-Victorian society which Tolkien took as a model, however, it was not unusual for quite young children to "go into service."

With regard to Sam's actual birthday, JRRT gives a hint:

There is no record of th Shire-folk commemorating either March 25 or September 22; but in the Westfarthing, especially in the country round Hobbiton Hill, there grew up a custom of making holiday and dancing in the Party Field, when weather permitted, on April 6. Some say it was old Sam Gardner's birthday, some that it was the day on which the Golden Tree first flowered in 1420, and some that it was the Elves' New Year.


LOTR: Appendix D

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They lived on the Hill itself, in Number 3 Bagshot Row just below Bag End.

Bagshot Row was made up of three small hobbit-holes below Bag End (seen in Tolkien's painting of The hill: hobbiton-across-the-Water http://fantasy.doom.bg/jrrtolkien/jrrtolkien23.jpg

Bagshot Row.The row of small 'holes' in the lane below Bag End, said to have been so
named because the earth removed in excavating Bag End was shot over the edge of the sudden fall in the hillside onto the ground which later became the gardens and earthwalls of the humbler dwellings.

'Guide to Names in The Lord of the Rings.'

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.. in the matter of 'roots', especially potatoes, the Gaffer was recognized as the leading authority

The potato like tabacco is a New World plant and should strictly not be in the story at all. We can suppose that Tolkien has anachronistically translated some Westron word for turnip of some such or that they were brought to Middle-Earth by the Numenoreans but died out in the ages between the Third and now until they were reintroduced.

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And no wonder they’re queer,’ put in Daddy Twofoot (the Gaffer’s next-door neighbour)

Daddy Twofoot must live in Number 2 Bagshot Row (presumably the hobbit-hole in the middle of the
row).

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A decent respectable hobbit was Mr. Drogo Baggins..

In Appendix F.III, Tolkien says that he gave the Tooks names of Frankish and Gothic origin. It is interesting that the very Baggins-sounding name "Drogo" is also Frankish. Charlemagne had an illegitimate son by that name who became Bishop of Metz, and is remembered as a patron of the arts (see the link below).

http://www.adeva.com/englisch/buchseite_e.asp?id=766

Charlemagne also had a cousin named Drogo, the son of his uncle Carloman.

There is another historical possibility relating to the name Drogo:
Drogo de Brevere was the son of Guillaume (William), Comte d'Arques. Guillaume was the son of Duke Richard II of Normandy and thus brother to the father of William the Conqueror, Robert the Devil. For his aid to Wm the Conqueror, Drogo was given the Isle of Holderness but lost it when he had to flee to Flanders after killing his wife. Holderness then went to Odo of Champagne. 'Drogo' becomes 'Drew' in English.

[urlhttp://genealogy.patp.us/conq/brevere.shm[/url]

The original reference to Drogo came from a book of letters by Msgr. John Ayscough to his mother during the First World War. Very likely this book was known to Tolkien and certainly were the historical personages.

http://www.ipa.net/~magreyn2/recint6.htm#O

Check out the above for other Latin-English equivalents: you will find the Sackvilles there.

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Bagginses
Bagginses in the 1881 British census:
http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=3&threadid=57409#1

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And Mr. Drogo was staying at Brandy Hall with his father-in-law, Old Master Gorbadoc

The name "Gorbadoc" resembles that of the title character of Gorboduc, the first English play in blank verse, written by Norton and Sackville(!) and performed before Queen Elizabeth in 1561.

Gorbadoc should have been dead, according to the date given in the appendices. See this thread for a brief discussion:

http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=55473#1

The boating incident occured in SR 1380, but Gorbadoc died in 1367, before Frodo was even born. It is unlikely that Gaffer Gamgee had ever been to Brandy Hall (his son Sam definitely had not - see the scene at Buckleberry Ferry), so he can be excused as an unreliable source in this matter. Drogo was likely visiting his brother-in-law, Old Rory Brandybuck.
(Dates taken from the Family Trees in Appendix C)

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And I heard she pushed him in, and he pulled her in after him.

Clearly we are not supposed to think this is "really" how Frodo's parents died. Nevertheless, even as slanderous gossip this stement seems inconsistent with Frodo's observation in Bk VI, ch. 8 that "No hobbit has ever killed another on purpose in the Shire." If murder were unknown in the Shire, surely it would not occur even to the malicious as a possiblity.

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"A regular warren, by all accounts."

A "warren" is the communal burrow-complex occupied by a group of rabbits. The word is from the French; the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is not native to England, having been introduced from the Continent by the Normans as a domesticated source of meat and fur.

http://www.yptenc.org.uk/docs/factsheets/animal_facts/rabbit.html

(There are no rabbit warrens in the US, as American cottontail rabbits, Sylvilagus sp., are solitary.) Originally, "warren" meant simply an enclosed area for the keeping of any domestic animals.

Tolkien rejected the frequently-made suggestion that either the word "hobbit" or the hobbits themselves owed anything to "rabbit" or rabbits:

[T]he only E[nglish] word that influenced the invention was "hole" . . . granted the description of hobbits, the trolls' use of rabbit was merely an obvious insult, of no more etymological significance than Thorin's insult to Bilbo "descendant of rats!"


T.A. Shippey has an extended discussion of rabbits and hobbits in The Road to Middle-earth, pp. 52-54.

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"Mr. Bilbo has learned him his letters - meaning no harm, mark you, and I hope no harm will come of it."

Tolkien seems to have entertained inconsistent ideas about the extent of literacy in the Shire. This statement clearly implies that the ability to read was not common among hobbits of the "lower class"; however, only a little further on, a crowd of children is able to read the "G" marks on Gandalf's fireworks.

If the Shire is compared with Tolkien's stated model of "a Warwickshire village about the time of the Diamond Jubilee" (i.e., about 1897), then the latter is closer to the truth. Universal primary education was compulsory in England by that time.

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The old man was Gandalf the Wizard, whose fame in the Shire was due mainly to his skill with fires, smokes, and lights

Fireworks have no special relation to me. They appear in the books (and would have done even if I disliked them) because they are part of the representation of Gandalf, beaqrer of the Ring of Fire, the Kindler: the most childlike aspect shown to the Hobbits being fireworks.


Letter 301.

wizard

According to the OED, the word "wizard" is a fifteenth-century coinage from the word "wise" and the suffix "-ard," which had derogatory connotations; e.g., "dullard," "sluggard," "drunkard." It is quoted as a translation of the Greek "sophist." It was first used to mean a magician or sorcerer in the middle of the sixteenth century.

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each labelled with a large red G [symbol] and the elf-rune, [symbol].

In the one-volume "50th Anniversary Edition" of LotR, published in 2004 by Harper Collins and Houghton Mifflin, these characters, like the Ring-inscription in the next chapter, are printed in red. Presumably this was Tolkien's original intention, though unlike the Ring-inscription, these do not seem to be mentioned in Letters.

The letter "G" is given here in each of the two main writing systems devised by Tolkien for his invented languages:

The scripts and letters used in the Third Age were all ultimately of Eldarin origin, an already at that time of great antiquity. . . The alphabets were of two main, and in origin independent kinds: the Tengwar or Tîw, here translated as "letters"; and the Certar or Cirth, translated as "runes." the Tengwar were devised for writing with brush or pen, and the squared forms of inscriptions were in their case derivative from the written forms. The Certar were devised and mostly used only for scratched or incised inscriptions.


For full details on these writing systems and their supposed origins, see Appendix E.II.

The word "rune" (rún in both Old English and Old Norse) means a character in one of the related alphabets used by the early Germanic peoples to write their languages prior to the adoption of the Latin alphabet. Like Tolkien's Cirth, the runic alphabets were designed to be carved in stone or wood, and hence the two "character sets" have a superficial resemblance. Tolkien uses the Anglo-Saxon runes to write modern English on the title page of The Hobbit, and on Thror's map.

http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Runic%20alphabet

The primary meaning of rún in Old English is "mystery" or "secret":
http://penguin.pearson.swarthmore.edu/~scrist1/scanned_books/tiff/oe_clarkhall/b0245.tiff

The practice of recording and recovering speech from marks has always struck those who have never encountered it as mysterious and sinister. The word "runes" has never lost these original overtones, and there is no shortage of websites which purport to disclose the "mystical powers" of the runic alphabet. For Tolkien, however, this alphabet was simply an aspect of his professional field of study.

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"G for Grand!" they shouted, and the old man smiled.

As noted above, this implies that Hobbit children generally were able to read and write; and also that either the tengwar or the cirth, or both, were in general use.

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The flowers glowed red and golden

Bilbo's interest in flowers was noted in the first chapter of The Hobbit:

"Not the man that used to make such particularly excellent fireworks! I remember those! Old Took used to have them on Midsummer's Eve. Splendid! They used to go up like great lilies and snapdragons and laburnums of fire and hang in the twilight all evening!" You will notice already that Mr Baggins was not quite so prosy as he liked to believe, also that he was very fond of flowers.


The Hobbit

As the note immediately below demonstrates, Tolkien himself evidently had more than a passing interest in botany and horticulture. References to plants are widespread throughout LotR, and when they are checked against online sources, they are generally found to be quite accurate.

snapdragons and sunflowers, and nasturtians trailing all over the turf walls and peeping in at the round windows.

Tolkien had a fight with the printers of LotR[.i] over the word "nasturtians." A week after [i]FotR appeared, he wrote in a letter:

I am afraid there are still a number of "misprints" in vol. I! Including the one on p. 166. But nasturtians is deliberate, and represents a final triumph over the high-handed printers. Jarrold's appears to have a highly educated pedant as a chief proof-reader, And they started correcting my English without reference to me: elfin for elven; farther for further; try to say for try and say and so on. I was put to the trouble of proving to him his own ignorance, as well as rebuking his impertinence. So, though I do not much care, I dug my toes in about nasturtians. I have always said this. It seems to be a natural anglicization that started soon after the "Indian Cress" was naturalized (from Peru, I think) in the 18th century; but it remains a minority usage. I prefer it because nasturtium is, as it were, bogusly botanical, and falsely learned.

I consulted the college gardener to this effect: 'What do you call these things, gardener?"

"I calls them tropaeolum, sir."

"But, when you're just talking to dons?"

"I says nasturtians, sir."

"Not nasturtium?"

"No, sir; that's watercress."

And that seems to be the fact of botanical nomenclature. . . .


Nasturtium officinale is the scientific name of the common watercress. The flower in Bilbo's garden is, as the college gardener said, Tropaeolum majus:

http://www.museums.org.za/bio/plants/tropaeolaceae/tropaeolum_majus.htm

Nasturtium means "nose-twister" in Latin, a reference to the peppery flavor of watercress leaves. The leaves and flowers of Tropaeolum have a similar flavor (and are sometimes eaten in salads), as reflected in the name "Indian Cress." Presumably this led to the transfer of the name from one species to the other.

As Tolkien acknowledges, "nasturtium" is the usual name for the flower, and "nasturtian" is a minority usage; "nasturtion" is also found. What Tolkien refers to as a "natural anglicization," the OED flatly calls "a corruption" of "nasturtium."

Note that as Tolkien says, Tropaeolum is an import from South America, and hence, like potatoes, an anachronism in the Third Age. The same is true of the sunflower, Helianthus, a native of the plains of North America.

http://www.plantfacts.com/Family/Asteraceae/Helianthus.annuus.shtml

Only the snapdragons (Antirrhinum) are native to Europe, and thus could actually have been found in Bilbo's garden.

http://www.thewaterwisegarden.com/antir.htm

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Then Thursday, September the 22nd, actually dawned.

As Tolkien explains in Appendix D:

The Shire Reckoning and dates are the only ones of importance for the narrative of the War of the Ring. All the days, months, and dates are in the Red Book translated into Shire terms, or equated with them in notes. The months and days, therefore, throughout The Lord of the Rings refer to the Shire Calendar.


The Shire calendar was arranged so that any date always fell on the same day of the week; thus September 22 was always a Thursday.

Tolkien gives the Shire months versions of the names reported by the Venerable Bede as having been used by the heathen Angles and Saxons. Halimath, the Hobbit name for September, is a worn-down form of halig-monaþ "Holy Month." Many of the Anglo-Saxon names evidently refer to pagan deities or feasts; Tolkien says that "[t]he meanings of these names, devised by Men, had as a rule been long forgotten by the Hobbits."

The "actual" Shire name for Thursday was "Mersday," meaning "Sea-day" (from Old English mere, "sea." This is reported as a translation of Earenya, the name of the day in the Numenorean calendar.

The English days are mostly named after pagan deities; "Thursday" is of course "Thor's-day." Tolkien went to some trouble to construct names and derivations without these unassimilable associations that would resemble the English names, such as Sterrendei "Star-day" (Quenya Elenya) in place of Saturday "Saturn's-day."

Just to point out also that 'Thursday' in the Shire is the day before their festival-day (day off). So, their Thursday is more like our Saturday.

The last day of the week, Friday (Highday), was the chief day, and one of holiday (after noon) and evening feasts. Saturday thus corresponds more nearly to our Monday, and Thursday to our Saturday.


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But there was also a generous distribution of squibs, crackers, backarappers, sparklers, torches, dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, goblin-barkers and thunder-claps.

Squibs :a small firework, consisting of a tube or ball filled with powder, that burns with a hissing noise and (usually) terminates with a small explosion, designed to be thrown in the air while burning. (see definition 3 at http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0668007.html). Squibs can also refer to small crackers, hand-held fountains (see The British Tradition http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/gpfworks.html and Handheld Squibs http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/sqibb.gif ) and broken firecrackers that fizz or hiss instead of exploding. Given that these squibs were distributed to the hobbits, it is unlikely that 'squibs' in this passage has this last meaning.

Crackers :These consist of black powder (gunpowder) in a tight cardboard or paper tube with a fuse to ignite the powder. The rapid expansion of gases produced by the burning powder ruptures the casing with a bang.
12 Crackershttp://www.fireworks.com/images/products/F-046A.jpg

Backarappers :Found in the brummie dictionary http://www.ebrummie.co.uk/brummie_dictionary/B.htm
backarapper n. a cracker with several folds giving a rapid succession of explosions (Rhodes, 1950).
The 'brummie dictionary' records the form of English spoken by Brummies (a person who comes from Brummagem -the working-class name for the City of Birmingham). Tolkien lived in Birmingham and its environs (Sarehole) between 1895 and 1911. Carpenter in J.R.R. Tolkien a biography notes that JRRT and his brother Hilary began to pick up something of the local vocabulary, adopting dialect words into their own speech: 'chawl' for a cheek of pork, 'miskin' for dustbin, 'pikelet' for crumpet, and 'gamgee' for cotton wool. 'Backarapper' is plainly another word picked up during his formative years and it refers to a type of cracker that gives multiple rapid reports. From the definition, it would appear to be a cracker that forms a series of charges, isolated from each other by crimps or folds in the casing and all ignited rapidly and sequentially by a single fuse.
No images are available.

Sparklers :A sparkler is a slow burning hand held firework, designed to emit a bright and sparkly light accompanied by a shower of sparks as it burns. The sparkler is formed by coating a mild steel wire for two thirds of its length with a slurry of a mixture of fuel (sulphur and charcoal), an oxidizing agent (commonly potassium nitrate), metal powder (iron or steel) and a binding agent (usually water with starch or sugar). Once dry, the sparkler is ready for use.
Diagram http://www.fireworks.com/images/product ... lerssm.gif
Sparklers http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/S-015A.jpg
Burning Sparkler http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/fireworks-sparkler.jpg
Sparklers in use (mpg) http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/601.mpg

Torches :torches are small flares that burn with coloured flames and smoke. They can be used for their own effect or used to safely light other fireworks. The ones illustrated burn for about five minutes.
Torches http://www.sunsongfireworks.com/display%20fireworks%20products%20line/torch/torch%20image/Torch.jpg
Torches (mpg) http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/605.mpg

Dwarf (Roman) -candles :a cylindrical firework designed to be emplaced in the ground that projects a series (commonly between three and twelve -although some fire up to twenty) of small projectiles -colored balls of fire, salutes (charges that noisily explode), pyrotechnic stars or projectiles that combine more than one of these properties. The effect is of an aerial firework display in miniature at relatively low altitudes (around forty feet). Judging by products on sale, smaller fireworks designed to be handheld are sometimes called 'candles', although these project only sparks or jets of coloured light rather than projectiles and are really small 'fountains'.
Diagram http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/candlessm.gif
Roman candles http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/C-012A.jpg
Roman Candle in action http://firepower.co.uk/images/candle.jpg
Candle mpg http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/302.mpg

(Elf) Fountains :Fountains are ground mounted fireworks that created hissing columns of coloured sparks as high as thirty to fifty feet. Modern fountains may whistle or crackle or spit additional effects. Very small fountains may be handheld (see Handheld Squibs http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/sqibb.gif ).
Diagram http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/fountainssm.gif
Fountain http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/H-068.jpg
Burning fountain http://www.sherif.dp.ua/fireworks/11/images/ani_gif/2-20.gif
Fountain in action (small) http://www.fireworks.com/images/video/H-068.gif
Fountain (mpg)http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/502.mpg

Thunderclaps :

Goblin-barkers :Currently the precise identification of what 'goblin-barkers' are has not been made. The name does not appear to be related to any of the entries in the *brummie dictionary* http://www.ebrummie.co.uk/brummie_dictionary/B.htm and a *Google Search* for 'fireworks +barkers' failed to locate a description or definition. So all that can be said is that they are 'A variety of firework of unknown type'.

----------------------------------------------------------------
And there was also one last surprise, in honour of Bilbo, and it startled the hobbits exceedingly, as Gandalf intended. The lights went out. A great smoke went up. It shaped itself like a mountain seen in the distance, and began to glow at the summit. It spouted green and scarlet flames. Out flew a red-golden dragon...

Smaug!

----------------------------------------------------------------
Gandalf

Tolkien took the name "Gandalf" from the Old Norse poem called Völuspá, the "Song of the Sybil" or "The Seeress's Prophecy"). The name occurs in a list of names of Dwarves (the "Dvergatal)," from which all the Dwarf-names in The Hobbit are taken. Here is the line in which the name occurs:

Vigr og Gandálfr, Vindálfr, Þorinn.

-----------------------------------------------------------------
There were many Bagginses and Boffins

In January of 1938, The Observer published a letter from a reader of The Hobbit, asking in a jocular manner for information about Tolkien's sources. Tolkien's reply was similar in its tone. In it he said of hobbits: "The full list of their wealthier families is: Baggins, Boffin, Bolger, Bracegirdle, Brandybuck, Burrowes, Chubb, Grubb, Hornblower, Proudfoot, Sackville, and Took." Letter 25. Contemporary letters to Allen & Unwin suggest that at this point he had completed only the first chapter of LotR. It will be seen however that the list of families had almost reached its final form; only "Goodbody" and "Brockhouse" are missing.

----------------------------------------------------------------------
. . . Boffins,

In Appendix F.II, Tolkien explains that "Boffin," like "Took," is a translation of an actual Westron name (Bophín) of unknown meaning.

The British slang term "boffin," meaning an expert, especially on scientific and technical subjects, apparently post-dates the writing of LotR; though its origin is not known, it seems to have arisen during the Second World War.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
Brandybucks

Brandybuck is a real name too, apparently. From Tolkien's Guide to Names in LOTR:
Brandybuck. A rare English name which I have come across. Its origin in English is not concerned; in The Lord of the Rings it is obviously meant to contain elements of the Brandywine River and the family name Oldbuck (see these entries). The latter contains the word 'buck' (animal): either Old English bucc[/o] 'male deer' (fallow or roe), or [i]bucca 'he-goat'.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
... there were various Grubbs (relations of Bilbo Baggins' grandmother),

Grubb. A hobbit-name. (Grubbs, I 36, is plural.) Translate, if possible in some way more or less suitable to sound and sense. The name is meant to recall the English verb grub 'dig, root,in the ground.'

'Guide to Names in The Lord of the Rings.'

Bilbo's paternal grandmother was Mrs Mungo Baggins, née Laura Grubb. In the successive draft versions of the Baggins genealogy given in The Peoples of Middle-earth, Miss. Grubb was originally named Lavinia, then Regina. The final name (Laura) was arrived at on the fourth of nine completed versions of the Baggins family tree.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chubbs

JRRT notes in his 'Guide to Names in The Lord of the Rings':

Chubb A genuine English surname, chosen because its immediate association in English is with the adjective "chubby", round and fat in bodily shape (said to be derived from chubb, the name of a river fish).[/quote]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Hornblowers . . . Bracegirdles

"Hornblower" is of course well known as the name of the hero of a popular series of adventure stories about the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, written in the mid-twentieth century by C.S. Forester. There is no evidence [AFAIK] that Tolkien ever read any of these. That a "Lieutenant Anthony Bracegirdle" appears as a character in Hornblower and the Atropos must certainly be put down to coincidence, as that book did not appear until 1953.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
'and Proudfoots.' 'ProudFEET!' shouted an elderly hobbit from the back of the pavilion

This jest has proven singularly difficult to carry over in translation. A detailed discussion is given in Vinyar Tengwar 41 (pp.24-26). See also the letter in VT 42.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Brockhouses

Brockhouse. Brock is an old word for the badger, still widely current in country speech up to the end of the nineteenth century and appearing in literature, and hence in good dictionaries, including bilinguals. So there is not much excuse for the Dutch and Swedish translators' having misrendered it. [...]

Brock occurs in numerous place-names, from which surnames are derived, such as Brockbanks. Brockhouse is, of course, feigned to be a hobbit-name because the 'brock' builds complicated and well-ordered underground dwellings or 'setts'. In Bk. VI, ch. 8 we have "Brockenbores" as the name of the refuge from which Fatty Bolger's guerilla band was smoked out by Sharkey's Men. And see the poem "The Adventures of Tom Bombadil," in which Tom has a run-in with "Badger-brock."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Master Everard Took and Miss Melilot Brandybuck got on a table and with bells in their hands began to dance the Springle-ring: a pretty dance, but rather vigorous.

Farmer Maggot's daughters also dance the Springle-ring in 'Bombadil Goes Boating' in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil. JRRT comments on the name:

Springle-ring. An invention; render it by a similar one suitable to the language of translation, implying a vigorous ring-dance in which dancers often leaped up.

'Guide to names in The Lord of the Rings'

In The Complete Guide to Middle-earth, Foster classifies the name as 'translated Hobbitish' meaning 'war-horse ring' although where this information proceeds from is not given ('springle' does not seem to be a synonym for 'war-horse' in any online dictionary).

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Miss Melilot Brandybuck

great-granddaughter of Frodo's grandfather Gorbadoc, and hence his first cousin twice removed. She was born in S.R. 1385, and was thus a very young 16 at the time of the Party.

"Melilot" is a wild flower, a kind of white sweet clover, thought by some to have medicinal qualities. Some pictures of the plant are available at this link:

http://www.carlinvilleschools.net/linke/flora/03/wscl.htm

----------------------------------------------------------------------
Master Everard Took

According to the family trees in Appendix C, Everard like Pippin was a great-great-grandson of Gerontius, the "Old Took." He was born in S.R. 1380 and was thus ten years older than Pippin.
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Fri Apr 02, 2004 5:41 pm

But old Rory Brandybuck was not so sure.

Rorimac Brandybuck was the oldest son and heir of Gorbadoc, and hence at this time Master of Buckland; Frodo's mother was his youngest sister. He was about 99 at the time of the Party, and died seven years later, in S.R. 1408. He was succeeded as Master by his son Saradoc, the father of Meriadoc.

-------------------------------------------------------------
he said to his daughter-in-law, Esmeralda...

Esmeralda Brandybuck, neé Took, was the wife of Saradoc and mother of Meriadoc. "Esmeralda" is the Medieval Latin word from which English "emerald" is derived, by way of French "emeraude."

-------------------------------------------------------------
..they were so patched and weatherstained that their original colour could hardly be guessed; it might have been dark green...

These would be the cloak and hood that Bilbo wore on his travels to the Lonely Mountain with Thorin and his companions. They were dark green because that was the colour worn by Dwalin, from whom Bilbo borrowed these garments.

----------------------------------------------------------------
He took off his party clothes, folded up and wrapped in tissue-paper his embroidered silk waistcoat, and put it away.

Silk is one of the Shire's anachronisms. The manufacture of silk ("sericulture") has a long history in China; its origin is dated in legend to about 3000 BC, but there is archaeological evidence pointing to an even older date. But silk fabrics did not reach Europe until the first century AD.

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/silkhistory.shtml

-----------------------------------------------------------------
"You have had your joke, and alarmed or offended most of your relations, and given the whole Shire something to talk about for nine days, or ninety-nine more likely."

The reference to a nine-day talking point (repeated at the beginning of the next chapter) is probably a variation on the English saying "nine day wonder", meaning something which briefly attracts a lot of popular attention. It arises from the 16th century comic actor William Kempe, who accepted a bet to dance a jig from London to Norwich, completing the journey with nine days dancing, and thereafter billing himself as "the Nine-Day Wonder".

----------------------------------------------------------------------
They went out into the hall. Bilbo chose his favourite stick from the stand; then he whistled. Three dwarves came out of different rooms where they had been busy.

In the draft version given in The Return of the Shadow, these dwarves are named Nár, Ánar, and Hannar. Like the names of the dwarves in The Hobbit, these names appear in the *Dvergatal* (or Catalogue of Dwarfs) in the Poetic Edda . ( http://www.skergard.org/skdverg.htm). While JRRT decided against giving the names of Bilbo's dwarvish companions, the name Nár reappears as that of Thrór's companion in Appendix A.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
About midnight carriages came for the important folk.

In eighteenth and nineteenth-century England, the ability to maintain a private carriage was the great token of indisputable prosperity. The carriage itself was not cheap to begin with, and it needed horses to pull it, a coachman to drive them, and a groom to care for them; and all of these had to be fed. To say that someone had "set up his carriage" was to say that financially, he had "arrived"; as for example Mr. Perry the doctor, in Jane Austen's Emma No such universal litmus test is to be found in modern society. The distinction between those with carriages and those without survives in the phrase "the carriage trade," meaning the people who make up the market for luxury goods of any kind.

One would expect that Bilbo and Frodo would be among those with carriages, to say nothing of the Brandybuck and Took families of which Merry and Pippin were the principal heirs. In fact, however, while the Shire is a stratified society, the social structure is "flatter" than the late-Victorian model. Sam is apparently Frodo's only servant, whereas a comparably well-off Victorian householder would have had several. Tolkien might have left the carriages out if he had thought the implications through.


------------------------------------------------------------------
For DORA BAGGINS..

Dora was Drogo's elder sister, the daughter of Fosco Baggins and Ruby Bolger and therefore Frodo's aunt and Bilbo's second cousin. She was born in 1302.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
For MILO BURROWS, hoping it will be useful

Milo was married to Peony Baggins, a great-great-granddaughter of Balbo Baggins, and hence Frodo's third cousin. He was also like Frodo a grandson of Gorbadoc Brandybuck, and thus Frodo's first cousin as well; Milo's mother Asphodel Burrows was Primula Baggins's sister. Milo however was 21 years Frodo's elder (b. S.R. 1347).

------------------------------------------------------------------------
For ANGELICA'S use, from Uncle Bilbo; on a round convex mirror. She was a young Baggins, and too obviously considered her face shapely.

Convex mirrors have the effect of distorting the reflection of whoever looks in them; the nose will appear larger, and the eyes and mouth smaller. Like the rest of Bilbo's presents, this one had a hidden message that was less than complimentary.

Add to discussion of Angelica: She was descended in the sixth generation from Balbo Baggins, who was thus her great-great-great-grandfather, Frodo's great-great-grandfather, and the great-grandfather of Bilbo and of Otho Sackville-Baggins. Milo Burrows was her uncle by marriage. She was born in 1381 and was thus about 20 at the time of the Party.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------
For the collection of HUGO BRACEGIRDLE, from a contributor

Hugo Bracegirdle seems to be the only "upper-class" hobbit mentioned in this chapter who does not appear in the family trees in Appendix C. Lobelia Sackville-Baggins was a Bracegirdle by birth.

As has been pointed out in the annotations to the Prologue, this gift implies that ownership of books was widespread among the Hobbit gentry. This however is fundamentally inconsistent with the fact that the histories of the War of the Ring were transmitted by a chain of manuscript copies beginning with the Red Book of Westmarch. If the Hobbits had invented printing, the Red Book would surely have been widely distributed. This is an example of how the Shire is entirely anachronistic with respect to the rest of Middle-Earth.

----------------------------------------------------------------------
For LOBELIA SACKVILLE-BAGGINS, as a PRESENT; on a case of silver spoons.

In describing the aftermath of Bilbo's return, the last chapter of The Hobbit says: "Many of his silver spoons mysteriously disappeared and were never accounted for. Personally he suspected the Sackville-Bagginses."

----------------------------------------------------------------------
[Bilbo's will] was unfortunately very clear and correct (according to the legal customsof hobbits, which demanded among other things seven signatures of witnesses in red ink).

Several versions of the will are preserved among the drafts of LotR. The final one runs as follows: 'Bilbo (son of Bungo son of Mungo son of Inigo) Baggins hereinafter called the testator, now departing being the rightful owner of all properties hereinafter named hereby devises, makes over, and bequeaths the property and messuage or dwelling-hole known as Bag-End Underhill near Hobbiton with all lands thereto belonging and annexed to his cousin and adopted heir Bingo (son of Drogo son of Togo son of Inigo Baggins hereinafter called the heir, for him to have hold posses occupy let on lease sell or otherwise dispose of at his pleasure as from midnight of the twenty-second day of September in the one hundred and eleventh or eleventy-first year of the aforesaid Bilbo Baggins. Moreover the aforesaid testator devises and bequesths to the aforesaid heir 'all monies in gold silver copper brass or tin and all trinkets, armours, weapons, uncoined metals, gems, jewels, or precious stones and all furniture appurtenances goods perishable or imperishable and chattles movable or immovable belong to the testator and after his depature found housed kept stored or secreted in any part of the said hole and residenceof Bad-end or of the lands thereto annexed, save only such goods or movable chattles as are contained in the subjoined scheduale which are selected and directed as parting gifts to the friends of the testator and which the heir shall dispatch deliver or hand over according to his convenience. The testator hereby relinquishes all rightsor claims to all these properties lands monies goods or chattles and wishes all his friends farewell. Signed Bilbo Baggins.'

JRRT tells us that Bilbo could not have been presumed 'dead' following his second disappearance:

The Baggins headship then, owing to the strange events, fell into doubt. Otho Sackville-Baggins was heir to this title – quite apart from questions of property that would have arisen if his cousin Bilbo had died intestate; but after the legal fiasco of 1342 (when Bilbo returned alive after being 'presumed dead') no one dared to presume his death again. Otho died in 1412, his son Lotho was murdered in 1419, and his wife Lobelia died in 1420.


ibid

This explains why the 'will' took effect from a time and date rather than on Bilbo's death. Messrs. Grubb, Grubb and Burrowes (or Bilbo's new solicitors if he changed lawyers after his return from Erebor) must have been aware that Bilbo was planning to disappear again and must have advised Bilbo regarding the form of the document to achieve the desired results. The seven witnesses also must have thought something strange was going on...

On the subject of the Will:

It is not necessary (in England) for the witnesses to know that what they are witnessing is a will (see Theobald Wills 16th Ed Para 4-10), or know its terms they just have to witness the signature. Given the nature of the will in draft and Bilbo's hope of secrecy it would appear unlikely that the contents would have been divulged to the witnesses, unless perhaps they were staff at Bilbo's lawyers.

The requirement of seven witnesses is far more stringent than the current one in England which is only two (s9 Wills Act 1837).

If hobbit-customs are based on English law, which the tems of the draft appear to show, then we may conclude that Frodo would not have been a witness, becasue a gift to a witness is void.

The customs of hobbits regarding the presumption of death appear from The Hobbit to differ from English law. This has a seven year period, and Bilbo was not absent for that time. At the end of the period the property would generally pass to Frodo as Bilbo's heir even on intestacy. Bilbo's adoption of Frodo appears to have taken place at an earlier stage, and, presumably, the relevant formalities had been complied with.

The document does appear to be more like an inter vivos settlement than a will, which 'speaks from death'. Its function seems to be twofold: to protect Frodo from litigation by the Sackville-Bagginses in the limbo period until Bilbo would be deemed dead by hobbit custom, and to make the residual gifts set out in the schedule binding on Frodo, rather than being a mere statement of wishes.

Christopher Tolkien comments on the third version of 'A Long Expected Party' (HOME 6):

Sancho Proudfoot appears, excavating in the pantry where he thought there was an echo (as in FR, p.4 ; physically attacked by Otho Sackville-Baggins, he was only finally ejected by the lawyers, first called 'Grubbs and Burrowes', as in The Hobbit, then changed to 'Messrs. Iago Grubb and Folco Burrowes (Bingo's lawyers)'.


-------------------------------------------------------------------
According to The Return of the Shadow, Deephallow was used in an early version of ‘A shortcut to the mushrooms’. Christopher Tolkien notes:

[quote]The way south from Brandywine Bridge now appears – first called ‘the raised road’, then ‘the banked road’, then ‘the causeway’: ‘the causeway that runs from the Bridge through Stock and past the Ferry down along the River to Deephallow.’ Here the village of Stock is first named [...], and also Deephallow, which though marked on my father’s map of the Shire and on the map in FR is never mentioned in the text of The Lord of the Rings.

The Return of the Shadow, p.286

Christopher Tolkien further uses the name on two occasions in the book (in a note and when it disappears from the text). Knowing his almost pathological attention to detail when it comes to geography, I would say that it must indeed be Deephallow, with an a.
I have no idea as to what it means, though, but it should not be forgotten that the meanings of English place-names are not always directly interpretable in modern English. After all, Nobottle (also on the map of the Shire) means ‘new building’, not ‘please throw your rubbish elsewhere’

The form "Deephallow" is also used in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil.

It still strikes me as deeply strange that there would be a place with this name in the Shire.

Modern dictionaries list "hallow" only as a verb (from OE halgian. OED has "hallow" as a noun meaning "saint," listed as obsolete and surviving only in "All Hallows' Eve" = "Halloween." (This is a different word, from OE halga.") Then it says that the word was used very rarely in a transferred sense, for the saint's relics or burial place.

Tolkien uses it twice in RotK to refer to the tombs in Rath Dinen. The only other place in M-E that is called "holy" is the Halifirien "Holy Mountain" (OE halig firgen). This is explained in UT as the grave of Elendil.

Tolkien's attitude toward worship in M-E is well documented: any religion beyond the austere monotheism of the Numenoreans is a false religion. So who or what could the Hobbits of the Shire ever have worshiped at any particular spot?
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Postby roaccarcsson » Fri Apr 02, 2004 8:20 pm

<strong>A Long-Expected Party</strong><BR><BR>The title of the chapter is a deliberate echo of the first chapter of <em>The Hobbit</em>: "An Unexpected Party."<BR><BR>[Never neglect the obvious!]
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Sat Apr 03, 2004 9:59 am

But there was also a generous distribution of squibs, crackers, backarappers, sparklers, torches, dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, goblin-barkers and thunder-claps.

Squibs :a small firework, consisting of a tube or ball filled with powder, that burns with a hissing noise and (usually) terminates with a small explosion, designed to be thrown in the air while burning. (see definition 3 at *http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0668007.html*). Squibs can also refer to small crackers, hand-held fountains (see *The British Tradition* http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/gpfworks.html and *Handheld Squibs* http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/sqibb.gif ) and broken firecrackers that fizz or hiss instead of exploding. Given that these squibs were distributed to the hobbits, it is unlikely that 'squibs' in this passage has this last meaning.

Crackers :These consist of black powder (gunpowder) in a tight cardboard or paper tube with a fuse to ignite the powder. The rapid expansion of gases produced by the burning powder ruptures the casing with a bang.
*12 Crackers* http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/F-046A.jpg

Backarappers :Found in the *brummie dictionary* http://www.ebrummie.co.uk/brummie_dictionary/B.htm
backarapper n. a cracker with several folds giving a rapid succession of explosions (Rhodes, 1950).

The 'brummie dictionary' records the form of English spoken by Brummies (a person who comes from Brummagem - the working-class name for the City of Birmingham). Tolkien lived in Birmingham and its environs (Sarehole) between 1895 and 1911. Carpenter in J.R.R. Tolkien a biography notes that JRRT and his brother Hilary began to pick up something of the local vocabulary, adopting dialect words into their own speech: 'chawl' for a cheek of pork, 'miskin' for dustbin, 'pikelet' for crumpet, and 'gamgee' for cotton wool. 'Backarapper' is plainly another word picked up during his formative years and it refers to a type of cracker that gives multiple rapid reports. From the definition, it would appear to be a cracker that forms a series of charges, isolated from each other by crimps or folds in the casing and all ignited rapidly and sequentially by a single fuse.
No images are available.

Sparklers :A sparkler is a slow burning hand held firework, designed to emit a bright and sparkly light accompanied by a shower of sparks as it burns. The sparkler is formed by coating a mild steel wire for two thirds of its length with a slurry of a mixture of fuel (sulphur and charcoal), an oxidizing agent (commonly potassium nitrate), metal powder (iron or steel) and a binding agent (usually water with starch or sugar). Once dry, the sparkler is ready for use.
*Diagram* http://www.fireworks.com/images/product ... lerssm.gif
*Sparklers* http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/S-015A.jpg
*Burning Sparkler* http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/fir ... arkler.jpg
*Sparklers in use (mpg)* http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/601.mpg

Torches :torches are small flares that burn with coloured flames and smoke. They can be used for their own effect or used to safely light other fireworks. The ones illustrated burn for about five minutes.
*Torches* http://www.sunsongfireworks.com/display ... /Torch.jpg
*Torches (mpg)* http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/605.mpg

Dwarf (Roman) -candles :a cylindrical firework designed to be emplaced in the ground that projects a series (commonly between three and twelve -although some fire up to twenty) of small projectiles -colored balls of fire, salutes (charges that noisily explode), pyrotechnic stars or projectiles that combine more than one of these properties. The effect is of an aerial firework display in miniature at relatively low altitudes (around forty feet). Judging by products on sale, smaller fireworks designed to be handheld are sometimes called 'candles', although these project only sparks or jets of coloured light rather than projectiles and are really small 'fountains'.
*Diagram* http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/candlessm.gif
*Roman candles* http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/C-012A.jpg
*Roman Candle in action* http://firepower.co.uk/images/candle.jpg
*Candle (mpg)* http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/302.mpg

(Elf) Fountains :Fountains are ground mounted fireworks that created hissing columns of coloured sparks as high as thirty to fifty feet. Modern fountains may whistle or crackle or spit additional effects. Very small fountains may be handheld (see *Handheld Squibs* http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2430/sqibb.gif ).
*Diagram* http://www.fireworks.com/images/product ... ainssm.gif
*Fountain* http://www.fireworks.com/images/products/H-068.jpg
*Burning fountain* http://www.sherif.dp.ua/fireworks/11/im ... f/2-20.gif
*Fountain in action (small)* http://www.fireworks.com/images/video/H-068.gif
*Fountain (mpg)* http://www.holborns.co.uk/fireworks/video/502.mpg

Thunderclaps :

Goblin-barkers :Currently the precise identification of what 'goblin-barkers' are has not been made. The name does not appear to be related to any of the entries in the *brummie dictionary* http://www.ebrummie.co.uk/brummie_dictionary/B.htm and a *Google Search* for 'fireworks +barkers' failed to locate a description or definition. So all that can be said is that they are 'A variety of firework of unknown type'.

[Under construction]
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Postby roaccarcsson » Sat Apr 03, 2004 6:30 pm

<strong>there was great talk and excitement in Hobbiton.</strong><BR><BR>The name "Hobbiton" first appears in <em>The Hobbit</em> in the last few pages, in the description of the auction of Bilbo's property: "the effects of the late Bilbo Baggins Esquire, of Bag-End, Underhill, Hobbiton."
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Postby Eluchil » Sat Apr 03, 2004 9:01 pm

p. 22 <strong>in the matter of 'roots', especially potatoes, the Gaffer was recognized as the leading authority</strong><BR><BR>The potato like tabacco is a New World plant and should strictly not be in the story at all. We can suppose that Tolkien has anachronistically translated some Westron word for turnip of some such or that they were brought to Middle-Earth by the Numenoreans but died out in the ages between the Third and now until they were reintroduced.<BR><BR>p. 29 <strong>'and Proudfoots.' 'ProudFEET!' shouted an elderly hobbit from the back of the pavilion</strong><BR><BR>This jest has proven singularly difficult to carry over in translation. A detailed discussion is given in <em>Vinyar Tengwar</em> 41 (pp.24-26). See also the letter in VT 42.<BR><BR>p. 35 <strong>The Road goes ever on and on ...</strong><BR><BR>This first line of this poem is taken from Bilbo's song at the end of <em>The Hobbit</em>, though otherwise the two pieces are not closely similar.<BR><BR>p. 38 <strong>[Bilbo's will] was unfortunately very clear and correct (according to the legal customsof hobbits, which demanded among other things seven signatures of witnesses in red ink).</strong><BR><BR>Several versions of the will are preserved among the drafts of LotR. The final one runs s follows 'Bilbo (son of Bungo son of Mungo son of Inigo) Baggins hereinafter called the testator, now departing being the rightful owner of all properties hereinafter named hereby devises, makes over, and bequeaths the property and messuage or dwelling-hole known as Bag-End Underhill near Hobbiton with all lands thereto belonging and annexed to his cousin and adopted heir Bingo (son of Drogo son of Togo son of Inigo Baggins hereinafter called the heir, for him to have hold posses occupy let on lease sell or otherwise dispose of at his pleasure as from midnight of the twenty-second day of September in the one hundred and eleventh or eleventy-first year of the aforesaid Bilbo Baggins. Moreover the aforesaid testator devises and bequesths to the aforesaid heir 'all monies in gold silver copper brass or tin and all trinkets, armours, weapons, uncoined metals, gems, jewels, or precious stones and all furniture appurtenances goods perishable or imperishable and chattles movable or immovable belong to the testator and after his depature found housed kept stored or secreted in any part of the said hole and residenceof Bad-end or of the lands thereto annexed, save only such goods or movable chattles as are contained in the subjoined scheduale which are selected and directed as parting gifts to the friends of the testator and which the heir shall dispatch deliver or hand over according to his convenience. The testator hereby relinquishes all rightsor claims to all these properties lands monies goods or chattles and wishes all his friends farewell. Signed Bilbo Baggins.'
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Postby pippinsqueak » Sun Apr 04, 2004 9:26 am

<strong>p. 38 [Bilbo's will] was unfortunately very clear and correct (according to the legal customs of hobbits, which demanded among other things seven signatures of witnesses in red ink).</strong><BR><BR>Legally speaking a will takes effect only on the death of a testator. What Bilbo really hoped to accomplish with this document was an inter vivos settlement of his property on Frodo. [I'm not sure if that's a proper annotation for here, but it is a point that has always bothered me].<BR><BR>[BTW, isn't there something in the Appendices or in HoME that talks about Sam, after becoming mayor, passing a law about the presumption of death when a hobbit leaves the Shire, that might be appropriate to refer to here.]
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Postby -Rómestámo- » Sun Apr 04, 2004 8:31 pm

<strong>pippinsqueak</strong> :<em>isn't there something in the Appendices or in HoME that talks about Sam, after becoming mayor, passing a law about the presumption of death when a hobbit leaves the Shire, that might be appropriate to refer to here.</em><BR><BR><strong>Letter 214</strong> tells us that a ruling was made about hobbits passing 'over sea' :<UL>When Master Samwise reported the 'departure over Sea' of Bilbo (and Frodo) in 1421, it was still held impossible to presume death; and when Master Samwise became Mayor in 1427, a rule was made that: 'if any inhabitant of the Shire shall pass over Sea in the presence of a reliable witness, with the expressed intention not to return, or in circumstances plainly implying such an intention, he or she shall be deemed to have relinquished all titles rights or properties previously held or occupied, and the heir or heirs thereof shall forthwith enter into possession of these titles, rights, or properties, as is directed by established custom, or by the will and disposition of the departed, as the case may require.' <BR><BR><strong>Letter 214</strong>, (1958 or 1959).</UL>Given that this does not apply to hobbits who merely <leave the Shire> , I suspect that reference to this ruling is best left until 'The Grey Havens' in <em>The Return of the King</em>?<BR><BR>However, in the passage immediately preceding the above citation, JRRT tells us that Bilbo could not have been presumed 'dead' following his second disappearance.<UL>The Baggins headship then, owing to the strange events, fell into doubt. Otho Sackville-Baggins was heir to this title – quite apart from questions of property that would have arisen if his cousin Bilbo had died intestate; but after the legal fiasco of 1342 (when Bilbo returned alive after being 'presumed dead') <strong>no one dared to presume his death again</strong>. Otho died in 1412, his son Lotho was murdered in 1419, and his wife Lobelia died in 1420.<BR><BR><em>ibid</em></UL>This explains why the 'will' took effect from a time and date rather than on Bilbo's death. <em>Messrs. Grubb, Grubb and Burrowes</em> (or Bilbo's new solicitors if he changed lawyers after his return from Erebor) must have been aware that Bilbo was planning to disappear again and must have advised Bilbo regarding the form of the document to achieve the desired results. The seven witnesses also must have thought something strange was going on...
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Postby Aravar » Mon Apr 05, 2004 4:31 am

On the subject of the Will:<BR><BR>It is not necessary (in England) for the witnesses to know that what they are witnessing is a will (see Theobald Wills 16th Ed Para 4-10), or know its terms they just have to witness the signature. Given the nature of the will in draft and Bilbo's hope of secrecy it would appear unlikely that the contents would have been divulged to the witnesses, unless perhaps they were staff at Bilbo's lawyers.<BR><BR>The requirement of seven witnesses is far more stringent than the current one in England which is only two (s9 Wills Act 1837).<BR><BR>If hobbit-customs are based on English law, which the tems of the draft appear to show, then we may conclude that Frodo would not have been a witness, becasue a gift to a witness is void.<BR><BR>The customs of hobbits regarding the presumption of death appear from tThe Hobbit to differ from English law. This has a seven year period, and Bilbo was not absent for that time. At the end of the period the property would generally pass to Frodo as Bilbo's heir even on intestacy. Bilbo's adoption of Frodo appears to have taken place at an earlier stage, and, presumably, the relevant formalities had been complied with. <BR><BR>The document does appear to be more like an inter vivos settlement than a will, which 'speaks from death'. Its function seems to be twofold: to protect Frodo from litigation by the Sackville-Bagginses in the limbo period until Bilbo would be deemed dead by hobbit custom, and to make the residual gifts set out in the schedule binding on Frodo, rather than being a mere statement of wishes.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Mon Apr 05, 2004 4:42 am

Query whether "Grubb, Grubb, & Burrowes" were solicitors. I do not believe that it was the custom in Victorian/Edwardian England for lawyers to auction off the estates of their clients <em>in person</em>. Certainly not in the US today. Auctions are run by individuals or firms specializing in the function (like Sothebys or Christies, though at a less exalted level). Such people certainly existed in England in the period taken by JRRT as his model - there is one in <em>Middlemarch</em>. I had alsways assumed that GG&B were professional auctioneers.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Mon Apr 05, 2004 4:49 am

<strong>Hornblowers . . . Bracegirdles</strong><BR><BR>"Hornblower" is of course well known as the name of the hero of a popular series of adventure stories about the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, written in the mid-twentieth century by C.S. Forester. There is no evidence [AFAIK] that Tolkien ever read any of these. That a "Lieutenant Anthony Bracegirdle" appears as a character in <em>Hornblower and the Atropos</em> must certainly be put down to coincidence, as that book did not appear until 1953.
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Postby wilko185 » Mon Apr 05, 2004 5:51 am

<strong>roac</strong>:<BR><em>Query whether "Grubb, Grubb, & Burrowes" were solicitors</em><BR><BR>Christopher Tolkien comments on the third version of 'A Long Expected Party' (HOME 6):<OL>Sancho Proudfoot appears, excavating in the pantry where he thought there was an echo (as in FR, p.48); physically attacked by Otho Sackville-Baggins, he was only finally ejected by the lawyers, first called 'Grubbs and Burrowes', as in <em>The Hobbit</em>, then changed to 'Messrs. Iago Grubb and Folco Burrowes (Bingo's lawyers)'.
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Postby truehobbit » Mon Apr 05, 2004 8:23 am

<strong>There were many Bagginses and Boffins, and also many Tooks and Brandybucks; there were various <u>Grubbs</u> (relations of Bilbo Baggins' grandmother), and various Chubbs (connexions of his Took grandfather); and a selection of <u>Burrowses</u>, Bolgers, Bracegirdles, Brockhouses, Goodbodies, Hornblowers and Proudfoots. </strong><BR><BR>So, maybe there could be a note saying that the solicitors who declared Bilbo legally dead in The Hobbit and had his property sold were Grubbs and Burrows.<BR><BR>A name like "A,B & C" is very typcial for solicitor companies, but not, I think, for auctioneers. I've always inferred from the line that they <em>"would sell the effects of the late Bilbo Baggins"</em> that they were the lawyers responsible for declaring him legally dead and allowing the sale of his property.<BR><BR>As to the other names: Hornblower and Bracegirdle appear in <a href='http://www.rootsinscotland.com/page20.html' target=_blank> this list</a> of Scottish surnames. So they are not invented names, and, although the occurence of both in the Hornblower series is interesting, I think there's no influence.<BR><BR>Edit: I checked the surname list for the other surnames and except for Baggins and Brandybuck, ALL appear in the list, hence are all existing surnames.<BR>Probably not a big surprise for the native English readers, but I wouldn't have thought it! <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-smile.gif"border=0>
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Postby Alberich » Mon Apr 05, 2004 3:21 pm

According to the contributors to <a href='http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=3&threadid=57409#1' target=_blank>this thread</a><BR>there are several Bagginses listed in the 1881 UK census.<BR><BR>
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Postby Silverfoot » Mon Apr 05, 2004 6:50 pm

<strong><em>For ANGELICA'S use, from Uncle Bilbo;</em> on a round convex mirror. She was a young Baggins, and too obviously considered her face shapely.</strong><BR><BR>Convex mirrors have the effect of distorting the reflection of whoever looks in them; the nose will appear larger, and the eyes and mouth smaller. Like the rest of Bilbo's presents, this one had a hidden message that was less than complimentary.
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Postby wilko185 » Mon Apr 05, 2004 7:09 pm

truehobbit:<BR><em>except for Baggins and Brandybuck, ALL appear in the list</em><BR><BR>Brandybuck is a real name too, apparently. From Tolkien's <em>Guide to Names in LOTR</em>:<OL><em>Brandybuck</em>. A rare English name which I have come across. Its origin in English is not concerned; in <em>The Lord of the Rings</em> it is obviously meant to contain elements of the <em>Brandywine River</em> and the family name <em>Oldbuck</em> (see these entries). The latter contains the word 'buck' (animal): either Old English <em>bucc</em> 'male deer' (fallow or roe), or <em>bucca</em> 'he-goat'.</OL><BR><BR>Now an actual annotation, for the opening sentence:<BR><BR><strong>When Mr. Bilbo Baggins of Bag End...</strong><BR><OL><em>Baggins</em>. Intended to recall 'bag' - compare Bilbo's conversation with Smaug in <em>The Hobbit</em> - and meant to be associated (by hobbits) with Bag End (that is, the end of a 'bag' or 'pudding bag' = cul-de-sac), the local name for Bilbo's house. (It was the local name for my aunt's farm in Worcestershire, which was at the end of a lane leading to it and no further).<BR>(<em>Guide to Names in 'Lord of the Rings'</em>)<BR><BR>[The <em>Guide to Names in 'Lord of the Rings'</em> and 'The Appendix on Languages' in Part I of HOME 12, have similar details of the meaning of many hobbit names, and also their original Common Speech forms.]</OL>
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Postby roaccarcsson » Mon Apr 05, 2004 7:49 pm

Regarding solictors v. auctioneers: I stand corrected. An intepretation of almost 50 years' standing down the drain.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Tue Apr 06, 2004 8:00 am

An anthropolgically minded historian might suspect that red ink was required because witnesses used to sigh their names in blood. Though this seems inconsistent with the hobbits' insisted-on peacefulness.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Tue Apr 06, 2004 3:32 pm

THE FOLLOWING IS A WORK IN PROGRESS<BR><BR>In Letter 168, Tolkien says that "Frodo is a real name from the Germanic tradition. Its Old English form was <em>Fróda</em>. Its obvious connection is with the old word <em>Fród</em> meaning eymologically 'wise by experience,' but it had mythological connexions with legends of the Golden Age in the North. . . ." <em>Letters</em>, 1st U.S. ed. at p. 224.<BR><BR>The Norse equivalent of <em>Fróda</em> is <em>Fróði</em>. (The letter "ð," called "edh," represents the "voiced th" sound spelled "dh" in Tolkien's Elvish orthography. Most writers in English use "th" to transliterate the edh, so that the name is most often written "Frothi." )<BR><BR>The frivolously-named but very respectable "Vikinganswerlady" website says that <em>Fróði</em> was "[o]riginally a by-name, 'the wise one' . . . From the OW.Norse adjective <em>fróðr</em> 'wise, learned.'" <BR><BR><a href='http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm#male_f' target=_blank>http://www.vikinganswerlady.com/ONMensNames_partial.htm#male_f</a><BR><BR>A "by-name" is a nickname applied to a person to describe a personal characteristic. Anyone who knows anything at all about the Vikings is familiar with this usage, as in "Erik the Red" (<em>Eirikr inn raudi</em>) and his son "Leif the Lucky" (<em>Leifr inn heppni</em>); "Red" and Lucky" are by-names. Both of Iceland's early historians, Sæmundr Sigfússon (1056-1133) and Ari Þorgilsson (Thorgilsson) (1067/8-1148), were given the by-name <em>inn fróði</em> in recognition of their learning.<BR><BR>See <a href='http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=531' target=_blank>http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=531</a><BR><BR>Tolkien's rendering "wise by experience" is presumably his attempt to combine the meanings "wise" and learned" - both of which can be said to apply to Frodo Baggins.<BR><BR>According to "Vikinganswerlady" (<em>loc. cit.</em>) <em>Fróði</em> was a common name in Viking-age Denmark, less so in Sweden, and quite rare in Norway, and hence in Iceland. The site below bears this out; it lists all the masculine personal names found in the Icelandic <em>Landnámabók</em>, the Book of Settlements (lit. "Landtakings" ). Out of 7100 individuals mentioned, the name <em>Fróði</em> appears twice. (<em>Landnámabók</em> was the work of the aforementioned Ari Þorgilsson, <em>Ari inn fróði</em>.)<BR><BR><a href='http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html' target=_blank>http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/landnamabok.html</a><BR><BR>In the earliest drafts of <em>LotR</em>, the hero was named "Bingo Bolger-Baggins," who was born a Bolger and took the name "Baggins" on his adoption by Bilbo. HoME VI, pp. 37-38. The name "Frodo" belonged to one of two Took brothers who were Bingo's companions: Frodo and Odo Took. Tolkien had gotten the story all the way to Rivendell in something resembling its final form before he reconsidered this assignment of names. Christopher Tolkien reproduces this note:<BR><BR><OL><em><strong>Too many hobbits</strong>. Also Bingo Bolger-Baggins a bad name. Let Bingo = Frodo, a son of Primula Brandybuck . . . . Also he has as proper name <strong>Baggins</strong>.<BR><BR>[Frodo </strong>struck out</strong>] No - I am now too used to Bingo.</em></OL><BR><em>Id.</em>, p. 221. Bingo remained Bingo through a further revision before becoming Frodo once and for all; <em>Id.</em>. p. 309.<BR><BR>It is remarkable, in view of Tolkien's declared hostility to allegorical interpretation, that the hero of <em>LotR[/h] is named "Wise" while his companion (see below) is named "Half-wise."
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Postby roaccarcsson » Tue Apr 06, 2004 4:00 pm

<strong> . . . Boffins,</strong><BR><BR>In Appendix F.II, Tolkien explains that "Boffin," like "Took," is a translation of an actual Westron name (<em>Bophín</em>) of unknown meaning.<BR><BR>The British slang term "boffin," meaning an expert, especially on scientific and technical subjects, apparently post-dates the writing of <em>LotR</em>; though its origin is not known, it seems to have arisen during the Second World War.
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Postby Queen_Beruthiel » Tue Apr 06, 2004 4:29 pm

<strong>And Mr. Drogo was staying at Brandy Hall with his father-in-law, old Master Gorbadoc, as he often did after his marriage (him being partial to his vittles, and old Gorbadoc keeping a mighty generous table);</strong><BR><BR>Gorbadoc should have been dead, according to the date given in the appendices. See this thread for a brief discussion:<BR><BR><a href='http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=55473#1' target=_blank>http://www.tolkienonline.com/thewhitecouncil/messageview.cfm?catid=27&threadid=55473#1</a>
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Postby Silverfoot » Tue Apr 06, 2004 5:29 pm

<strong>He looked indisposed--to see Sackville-Bagginses at any rate; and he stood up, fidgeting with something in his pocket.</strong><BR><BR>The mysterious "something" in Frodo's pocket is never explained, but it is presumably the Ring, recalling a similar line a few pages earlier: "As for Bilbo Baggins, even while he was making his speech, he had been fingering the golden ring in his pocket: his magic ring that he had kept secret for so many years." This seems to illustrate the important fact that even after only a few days, the Ring already had something of a hold on Frodo.
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Postby MithLuin » Tue Apr 06, 2004 5:59 pm

<strong>Queen_Beruthiel</strong> beat me to it! Ah well, I'll post mine anyway <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-wink.gif"border=0>.<BR><BR>The Gaffer is mistaken. The boating incident occured in SR 1380, but Gorbadoc died in 1367, before Frodo was even born. It is unlikely that Gaffer Gamgee had ever been to Brandy Hall (his son Sam definately had not - see the scene at Buckleberry Ferry), so he can be excused as an unreliable source in this matter. Drogo was likely visiting his <em>brother</em>-in-law, Old Rory Brandybuck. <BR>(Dates taken from the Family Trees in Appendix C) <BR><BR>A discussion of the changing timelines of this chapter as first written may be appropriate, but someone else will have to add them.
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Postby Silverfoot » Tue Apr 06, 2004 9:21 pm

<strong>No one had a more attentive audience than old Ham Gamgee, commonly known as the Gaffer.</strong><BR><BR>(Nearly all of the following annotation is taken from: <a href='http://www.tuckborough.net/gamgee.html' target=_blank>http://www.tuckborough.net/gamgee.html</a> which seems to be a quite reliable website.)<BR><BR>Hamfast is from the Old English hámfœst meaning "stay-at-home." (Appendix F, p. 414) <BR><BR>Gamgee is an English surname and also a name for "cotton-wool," named after an English surgeon who invented "Gamgee tissue." Tolkien remembered the name from his childhood near Birmingham and used it to relate the Gamgee family to the Cotton family. (Although he claims there was no such intent, the very pointing out of the possibility of a connection, in the Appendices, forms a connection to the reader.) <BR>As a Hobbit name, Gamgee is derived from Gamwich, a village devoted to rope-making--significant because, as Sam points out in a later chapter, rope-making is 'in the family as you might say.' Ham's brother, father, and grandfather were all nicknamed "Roper." Other forms include Gammidge, Gamwichy, and Gammidgy. ("Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings," p. 166; Letters, #72, #144, #184; Appendix C) <BR><BR>Gaffer means "old man." <BR><BR>Gaffer Gamgee was the name given by Tolkien to an old man that he and his boys encountered while on holiday. The man was prone to gossiping and predicting the weather. The name became part of the family lore. (Letters, #257) <BR><BR>Ranugad Galpsi is the original Hobbit name of Hamfast Gamgee. (Appendix F, p. 414)<BR><BR>(Edited for clarity.)<BR><BR>(Edit #2- *cheers for 500th post* <img src="http://www.tolkienonline.com/mb/i/expressions/face-icon-small-happy.gif"border=0>)
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 5:04 am

"Gaffer" is a contraction of "grandfather," as "gammer," the equivalent term for an old woman, is a contraction of "grandmother."<BR><BR>The chief electrician on a movie set is called the "gaffer," apparently because the term came to be used in Britain for the foreman of any work gang - as the captain of a ship or the commander of a military unit is always "the Old Man" regardless of age.<BR><BR>[I always thought the gaffer was the guy who operated the gaff, whatever that was. As the Key Grip was the person who gripped the key. TORC is a very educational place.)
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 10:06 am

<strong>Miss Melilot Brandybuck</strong><BR><BR>According to the family trees in Appendix C, Melilot was a great-great-granddaughter of Frodo's grandfather Gorbadoc, and hence[ I think] his first cousin twice removed. She was born in S.R. 1385, and was thus a very young 16 at the time of the Party.<BR><BR>"Melilot" is a wild flower, a kind of white sweet clover, thought by some to have medicinal qualities. Some pictures of the plant are available at this link:<BR><BR><a href='http://www.carlinvilleschools.net/linke/flora/03/wscl.htm' target=_blank>http://www.carlinvilleschools.net/linke/flora/03/wscl.htm</a>
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 10:31 am

<strong></em>For LOBELIA SACKVILLE-BAGGINS, as a PRESENT;</em> on a case of silver spoons.</strong><BR><BR>In describing the aftermath of Bilbo's return, the last chapter of <em>The Hobbit</em> says: "Many of his silver spoons mysteriously disappeared and were never accounted for. Personally he suspected the Sackville-Bagginses."
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 10:41 am

<strong>Master Everard Took</strong><BR><BR>According to the family trees in Appendix C, Everard like Pippin was a great-great-grandson of Gerontius, the "Old Took." He was born in S.R. 1380 and was thus ten years older than Pippin.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 10:46 am

Add to discussion of Arabella Bolger: She was descended in the sixth generation from Balbo Baggins, who was thus her great-great-great-grandfather, Frodo's great-great-grandfather, and the great-grandfather of Bilbo and of Otho Sackville-Baggins. Milo Burrows was her uncle by marriage. She was born in 1381 and was thus about 20 at the time of the Party.
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Postby roaccarcsson » Wed Apr 07, 2004 10:51 am

<strong><em>For MILO BURROWS, hoping it will be useful</em></strong><BR><BR>Milo was married to Peony Baggins, a great-great-granddaughter of Balbo Baggins, and hence Frodo's third cousin. He was also like Frodo a grandson of Gorbadoc Brandybuck, and thus Frodo's first cousin as well; Milo's mother Asphodel Burrows was Primula Baggins's sister. Milo however was 21 years Frodo's elder (b. S.R. 1347).
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